Confidence

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  • Confidence
    • Definitions
      • Self confidence is a person's belief in their ability to achieve success.
      • Self-efficacy is a situation-specific self-confidence.
    • Bandura's Self-efficacy Model (1977)
    • Social Facilitation
      • 'The behavioral effects due to the presence of others' Zajonc (1965)
        • Social inhibition is the negative effect of others
          • Caused by distractions
      • Simple and well-learned task increases performance
        • Learn skills away from the audience and gradually introduce the spectators with skill development
        • Use self-talk and imagery, prior to the performance use visualisation in-front of a crowd.
      • Complex or new tasks decreases performance
      • Spectators and coactors lead to an increase in dominant resposne
        • Linked to Drive Theory Hull (1943)
        • More skilled performers, better dominant response
        • Experienced players perform better with crowds
        • Increased arousal levels
      • Baron (1968) Distraction-conflict Theory
    • Self-Efficacy
      • Verbal Persuasion
        • Encouragement from coaches, peers and fans
          • Performers are shown others have confidence in them
        • Positive self-talk
      • Vicarious Experience
        • Gained from watching others be successful
          • Mental Rehearsal
          • Other player must be at a similar standard
          • Watch Demo's
      • Emotional Arousal
        • Pre-performance routines
        • Over arousal  forms a decrease in performance
          • Perform anxiety-reducing techniques to reduce over-arousal
        • High arousal levels associated with success
          • Perceiving increases heart and respiratory rates
    • Homefield Advantage
      • Large number of home fans
        • Audience increase self-efficacy and motivation
        • Influential on officials decisions
      • Familiarity of surroundings
      • Ability for routine
      • Less travel
      • However, larger crowds may lead to evaluation apprehension  causins an increase iin anxiety
  • Emotional Arousal
    • Pre-performance routines
    • Over arousal  forms a decrease in performance
      • Perform anxiety-reducing techniques to reduce over-arousal
    • High arousal levels associated with success
      • Perceiving increases heart and respiratory rates
  • Linked to Drive Theory Hull (1943)
  • Proximity Effect Schwartz (1977)

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