CONCEPTS IN POLITICS

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  • CONCEPTS IN POLITICS
    • Citizenship
      • Realitionship between and individual and a state
        • Individual owes loyalty to state
          • In return state provides protection.
      • Citizens have certain rights, duties  and responsabilities
        • Political rights: the right to vote and to obey the government
        • Usual responsabilites of a citizenship are allegiance (LOYALTY), taxation and sometimes military service
      • most privilaged form of nationality.
      • does not always accompanies nationality
        • EXAMPLE
          • Mexico does not give citizenhip for underage (18) . Therefore mexican children are "nationals" but not "citizens"
    • Nation State
      • Is a territorial construct in which a nations´s boundaries are contained within a state
      • Is also a theoretical construct based on the belief that a nation should be able to define its own boarders
        • and thereby exercise CONTROL over them.
      • Citizens of a nation-state often hold a deep emotional attachment to their NATIONAL IDENTITY
      • NATION
        • Mass community who share the same history, language, religion, cultural traditions.
        • A nation can exist without a state
      • STATE
        • Is a geographical territory which a government maintains in order to rule over it
      • NATIONALISM
        • DEVOTION,  to the interests or culture of a particular nation-state
    • Legitimacy
      • is the belief that the government does things in terms of policy and law-making that are ACCEPTABLE  to the citizens of that state
      • The `people´give authority to those in power, and can also take it away if the government does not do what is acceptable to the people.
      • consent of the governed
        • in a legitimate government
        • the AUTHORITY of the government should be on the consent of the people
    • Sovereignty
      • the concept that a government has a right to govern/rule its own territory, without the interference from other bodies. Also has supreme authority over some polity.
      • is the term used to mean "the right  of a government to rule and govern itself"
      • In the UK, it is assumed there is ´parlimentary sovereignty´
        • countries which are part of organizations such as NATO, EU, etc,  do not longer have absolute sovereignty . When being member of these organizations some sovereignty is given up.
      • TYPES OF SOVEREIGNT
        • Popular sovereignty
          • implies that supreme power in the state rests with the people.
            • According to Dr. Garner "sovereignty of the people" can mean nothing more than the power of the majority where suffrage prevails ( suffrage= right to vote & prevails =win
        • De jure sovereignty
          • has legal right to control over a partucular teritory . "in the eye of law"
        • De facto sovereignty (not legal)
          • does not exist in the "eye of the law" . Someoene who posses the actual power who has assumed AUTHORITY  illegitimately, unconstitutionally, unlawful
    • Authority
      • refers to accepted power that is power people agree to follow (legitimised)
      • people listen to AUTHORITY figures because they feel that these individuals are worthy of respect.
        • people perceive the objectives and demands of an authority figure as reasonable and beneficial, or true
      • there are elected authorities
      • Weber´s 3 types of AUTHORITY
        • TRADITIONAL AUTHORITY
          • this kind of authority is accepted because it has been tradition
          • legitimacy exists because it has been accepted for a long time
          • The ruler typically has no real force to carry out its will or maintain its position, but it depends primarly on a group´s respect.
          • Queen Elizabeth inherited her position
        • CHARISMATIC
          • In this type of authority people follow and accept this power because they are drawn to the leader´s personal qualities, characteristics
          • Charismatic leaders usually emerge in times of crisis and offer innovative and radical solutions
            • Leaders of this type of authortiy can inpire followers to make unusual sacrifices
          • Some famous leaders : Adolf HItlers, Napoleon, Jesus Christ, Cesar Chavez
        • RATIONAL-LEGAL
          • power is legitimate by LAWS, written rules and regulations.
          • Power is possed in a particular nationale, system (not necessarily the leaders doctrine can be implemented.
          • a nation-state which follows a constitution applies this type of authority
          • Ghandi was both Charismatic and Rational-legal
    • Power
      • According to Weber
        • Power is the ability to exercise one´s will over others
          • Power affects more than personal relationships, it shapes the dynamic of social groups,      governmets professionalorganizations.
      • According to Michel Foucalt
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      • Types of POWER
        • coercive power
          • Power that is dependent on fear, suppression of free will and thread
        • Authority
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