Complex Ions

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  • Created by: Agata
  • Created on: 09-05-16 18:04
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  • Complex Ions
    • A complex metal ion is a metal ion surrounded by coordinately bonded ligands.
      • A coordinate bond / dative covalent bond is a covalent bond in which both electrons in the shared pair come from the same atom.
        • In a COMPLEX ION, they come from the LIGANDS.
          • So... A LIGAND is an atom, ion or molecule that donates a pair of electrons to a central metal.
    • OXIDATION STATES OF COMPLEX IONS
      • The overall charge on a complex ion is its total oxidation state. It's put outside the square brackets
      • To work out the oxidation state of the metal ion within a complex use:
        • The oxidation state of the metal ion= The total oxidation state of the complex - The sum of the oxidation states of the ligands
    • SHAPES OF THE COMPLEX IONS
      • 6 coordinate bonds - OCTAHED-RAL SHAPE
      • 4 coordinate bonds - TETRAHED-RAL SHAPE
        • EXCEPTIONS: E.G CISPLATIN
          • SQARE PLANAR SHAPE
      • 2 coordinate bonds-  Some silver complexes have 2 coordinate bonds and form a LINEAR SHAPE.
    • HEAM & HEAMOGLO-BIN
      • Haemoglobin is a protein found in blood that helps to transport oxygen around the body.
      • Haemoglobin contains Fe2+ ions, which are hexa-coordinated- 6 lone pairs are donated to them to form 6 coordinate bonds.
        • 4 of the lone pairs come from NITROGEN atoms, which form a circle around the Fe2+.
          • This part of the molecule is called HEAM.
            • A molecule that the 4 nitrogen atoms are part of is multidentate ligand called a PORPHYRIN
              • A protein called a GLOBIN and either OXYGEN or WATER molecule also bind to Fe2+ ion to form an octahedral structure.
  • Different types of ligand
    • Ligands that can only form ONE coordinate bond are called UNIDENTATE
    • Ligands that can form TWO coordinate bonds are called BIDENTATE
    • Ligands that can form more than one coordinate bond are called MULTIDENTA-TE
    • So... A LIGAND is an atom, ion or molecule that donates a pair of electrons to a central metal.

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