National 5 History: Unit 2 Changing Britain- Coalmining

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    • Dangers of coal mining
      • Floods
        • Steam powered pumps
      • Cave ins
        • Wooden pit props replaced by hydraulic metal pit props by 1900
      • Poor Ventilation
        • One shaft mines banned
        • Ventilation fans from 1860s onwards
        • Trap doors kept air moving
      • Gas Leaks
        • Davvy Safety lamp invented 1815 shows harmful gases by changing flame colour
        • Ventilation fans
        • Could be poisonous
        • Could ignite and cause explosions
      • Accidents transporting Coal
        • Steam engines pulled hutches on rails 1844 onwards
        • Wire rope used from 1850
        • Steam powered winding engines
    • Jobs in coalmines
      • Hewer
        • The actual coal miner usually the stronger, male workers
      • Putter
        • Younger boys and girls had the job of hauling coal carts through the mines
      • Trapper
        • Usually the smallest, youngest workers. Sit and open & close trap doors to ventilate mines, sometimes doing this for 12 hours at a time
      • Bearer
        • Women and older girls who carried coal  to surface. Usually climbing ladders with coal on their backs
      • Mine act of 1842
        • Stopped women & children under 10 working underground
        • Inspectors appointed to enforce the act
        • All boys under 15 banned from operating winding equipment
      • Mining Act of 1862
        • Single shaft mines illegal
      • Mining Act of 1872
        • Mine managers need certificates to prove they are trained


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