Classification and Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

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  • Classification and Diagnosis of Schizophrenia
    • Reliability
      • Cultural Differences
        • Copeland (1971)
          • 194 British Psychologists (ICD)and 134 US Psychologists (DSM)
            • 69% of US diagnosed Schizophrenia but only 2% of British said the same
        • Harrison et al (1984)
          • Overdiagnosis in West Indian psychiatric pateinets in Bristol
      • Gender Bias
        • Loring and Powell (1988)
          • 290 Psychiatrists asked to diagnose same two patients
            • When they were told patient was male 56% diagnosed schizophrenia but when told the patient was female this fell to 20% despite having identical symptoms.
              • Gender Bias wasnt as clear if psychiatrist was female
                • Gender Bias comes from both gender of patient and gender of psychiatrist
      • Co-Morbidity
        • Having two or more conditions at the same time.
          • It could be some symptoms belong to a known mental disorder but others belong to an untreated disorder that hasn't been recognised
    • Validity
      • Co-Morbidity
        • Having two or more conditions at the same time.
          • It could be some symptoms belong to a known mental disorder but others belong to an untreated disorder that hasn't been recognised
      • Symptom Overlap
        • Ellason and Ross(1995)
          • Found people with Dissociative Identity Disorder(DID) have more symptoms of schizophrenia than people being diagnosed schizophrenic
        • Read (2004)
          • Most people who are diagnosed with schizophrenia have sufficient symptoms of other disorders that they could receive at least one other diagnosis
      • Gender Bias
        • Broverman et al (1970)
      • Rosenhan (1973)
        • Got people with no mental health issues to present themselves at a psychiatric hospital saying they were hearing voices
          • They were admitted and became Pseudo-patients
        • Rosenhan did a follow up study which he said he would send pseudo-patients - In reality he sent none
          • This lead to a 21% detection rate
  • found clinicians in the US equated mentally "healthy" adult behaviour with mentally "healthy" adult behaviour.
    • Broverman et al (1970)
    • As a result there was a tendency for women to be perceived as mentally less healthy.

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