Schizophrenia: Diagnosis and Classification

What is Schizophrenia?
A severe mental illness where contact with reality and insight are impaired.
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What percentage of the world population suffer from Schizophrenia?
1%
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What are the two major systems for the classification of mental disorders?
The International Classification of Disease edition 10 (ICD-10) and American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual edition 5 (DSM-5)
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What is the issue with having two separate diagnostic manuals?
ICD-10 and DSM-5 differ in their classification of Schizophrenia; This means a patient can be misdiagnosed depending on what manual is being used.
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What are Positive Symptoms?
Additional experiences beyond those of ordinary existence.
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What are the two main examples of a positive symptom?
Hallucinations and Delusions
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What is a Hallucination?
A positive symptom of Schizophrenia. They are sensory experiences of stimuli that have either no basis in reality or are distorted perceptions of things that are there.
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What is a Delusion?
A positive symptom of schizophrenia. They involve beliefs that have no basis in reality for example, the sufferer is the victim of a conspiracy.
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What is a Negative Symptom?
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia involve the loss of usual ability.
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What are the two main examples of a negative symptom?
Avolition and Speech Poverty.
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What is Avolition?
A negative symptom of schizophrenia. It involves the loss of motivation to carry out tasks and results in lowered activity levels.
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What is Speech Poverty?
A negative symptom of schizophrenia. It involves reduced frequency and quality of speech.
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What is Co-Morbidity?
The occurrence of two illnesses or conditions together, for example, a patient could have schizophrenia and depression.
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What is an issue with Co-Morbidity in the diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia?
If conditions occur together then this calls into question the validity of their diagnosis. Symptoms of the two conditions can overlap and lead to misdiagnosis, weakening the process of diagnosis and classification in schizophrenia.
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Who looked into Co-Morbidity in schizophrenia and what did they find?
Buckley et al concluded that 50% of schizophrenia patients also had depression and that 47% had a history of substance abuse. 29% had PTSD and 23% had OCD. This poses questions about what symptoms are schizophrenia and what are other disorders.
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What is Symptom Overlap?
Occurs when two or more conditions share symptoms.
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What is an issue with symptom overlap in the diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia?
It again calls into question the validity of the diagnosis. Bipolar disorder for example involves delusions and avolition. Under ICD a patient would be schizophrenic but under DSM, the same patient would be bipolar.
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How does gender bias affect the diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia?
Longnecker et al reviewed schizophrenia studies and concluded that since 1980, more men have been diagnosed with schizophrenia than women. Women are higher functioning and therefore less likely to get a diagnosis even if they have the same symptoms.
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How does cultural bias affect the diagnosis and classification of schizophrenia?
People with Afro-Caribbean origins are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than white people. This is almost certainly not to do with genetic vulnerability.
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What percentage of the world population suffer from Schizophrenia?

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1%

Card 3

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What are the two major systems for the classification of mental disorders?

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Card 4

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What is the issue with having two separate diagnostic manuals?

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Card 5

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What are Positive Symptoms?

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