Classification

  • Created by: elshuntt
  • Created on: 07-04-18 19:24
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  • Classification
    • Key Points
      • Biological species concept
        • Organisms are the same species if they can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
        • They have the same number of chromosome = successful reproduction
      • Binomial Naming Species
        • e.g. Homo sapiens ~ should be underlined and in itallics.
          • Homo = genus (must contain a capital)
          • sapiens = species (must be lowercase)
        • Ensures all species have a unique name ~ no confusion between using common names (common sames can have different scientific name)
    • Phylogeny
      • Classifying species into groups based on their evolutionary relatedness
        • Example: Species = Sapiens, Genus = Homo, Family = Hominidae, Order = Primate, Class = Mammalia, Phylum = Chlordata Kingdom = Animalia, Domain = Eukarya
          • Order of Classification Domain -> Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> Species
            • Dominant ***** people can often find good sex
      • Order of Classification Domain -> Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> Species
        • Dominant ***** people can often find good sex
      • Domains
        • Introduced as super-kingdoms above the levels of kingdom
        • Based on evidence from DNA/RNA
        • More accurate reflection of the origins of prokaryotes - very diverse thus divided into two groups Archae and Bacteria
        • Eukaryotic organisms grouped together
      • Kingdoms
        • Prokaryotae
          • e.g. bacteria
          • Cell Type: Prokaryotic
          • Single celled organisms
          • Cell wall: Peptidoglyceride
          • Autotrophic & Hetrotrophic
          • does not contain membrane bound organelles
        • Protoctista
          • e.g. Algae
          • Cell Type: Eukaryotic
          • Single celled organisms
          • Cell Wall: sometimes present
          • Autotrophic &  Hetrotrophic
          • contains membrane bound organelles
        • Fungi
          • e.g. Yeast & Mushrooms
          • Cell Type: Eukaryotic
          • Multi-cellular organisms
          • Cell Wall: Chitin
          • Hetrotrophic
          • contains membrane bound organelles
        • Plantae
          • contains membrane bound organelles
          • e.g. Angiosperms
          • Cell Type: Eukaryotic
          • Multicelluar organisms (tissues and organs)
          • Cell Wall: Cellulose
          • Photoautotrophic
        • Animalia
          • e.g. Insects & Birds
          • Cell Type: Eukaryotic
          • No cell wall
          • Multi-cellular organisms (tissues/organs/systems)
          • Heterotrophic
          • contains membrane bound organelles
      • Evidence Used for Phylogeny
        • Biochemistry
          • Cytochrome/enzymes/antibodies ~ compare tertiary structure
        • Genetics
          • e.g. DNA/RNA ~ compare base sequences and the higher the % match the more closely related they are
        • Anatomy
          • Observable physical characteristics
        • Behaviour and Embryology (how the embryo develops)
      • Phylogeny Species Concept (organisms are the same species if...)
        • They form a monoplyletic group
        • The genetic differences between individuals must be small
        • There is gene flow between individuals (can have a variety of phenotype)
    • Taxonomy
      • Classifying species into groups based on observed physical chacteristics

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