Class, Gender and Ethnicity (Topic 3)

  • Created by: lou9119
  • Created on: 31-05-17 12:04
View mindmap
  • Class, Gender and Ethnicity
    • Class
      • Middle and upper class children do better than working class children in education. Even before they start school this is predestined due to economic and cultural capital.
      • Why do w/c children do worse than m/c?
        • W/C more likely to start school unable to read.
        • W/C don't do as well in SATs.
        • They are less likely to get places in the best schools.
        • More likely to be placed in lower streams and sets.
        • Get poorer exam results.
        • More likely to leave school at 16 and go into vocational courses.
        • Less likely to go into higher education.
      • External Factors
        • Housing is more likely to be crowded and damp and are more likely to find studying difficult. They also have poorer diets which may mean more days off of school due to illness.
        • Less likely to have pre-school tutoring or nursing.
        • Educational books and toys may not be bought.
        • More likely to have part time jobs.
        • Parents unlikely to help fund children in Higher Ed.
        • Parents may also take less interest in their children's educational achievements due to subcultures.
        • Parents level of education may mean no help with academia.
        • Restricted speech codes as Bernstein suggested.
      • Internal Factors
        • Streaming and Labelling
        • Self-fulfilling prophecy
        • Teacher Stereotyping
        • Identities and subcultures
        • Types of school and their resources
        • Hidden curriculum and ethos
        • 'warmed up' 'cooled down'
        • 'halo-effect'
        • Access to classroom knowledge
    • Gender
      • Facts:
        • Girls do better than boys at every stage in National Curriculum Tests
        • Girls are more successful than boyrs in most GCSEs, especially English.
        • Higher percentage of girls stay on in further and higher education
        • Girls more likely to get 1st or upper 2nd class degrees.
      • Girls
        • Girls are less likely to participate in Science or math subjects after GCSE due to the male domination of the subjects.
          • It can also be due to the textbook and teacher stereotyping.
            • An example could be how english teachers are predominately female and so girls may feel pressured to follow these jobs.
        • Girls usually do better than boys in education due to these factors:
          • Better classroom behaviour
          • Higher teacher expectations
          • Coursework and equal opportunities had benefited girls more than boys
          • Peer group pressure and subcultures for boys
          • Girls are motivated by feminism
          • Girls mature earlier and boys overestimate their ability
          • Better language skills
          • Male 'identity crisis' do to the new service sector for women
        • 'Male-gaze' belittles girls into physical objects, making patriarchal power evident in achievement.
      • Boys
        • Dominate classroom talk and thus get more teacher attention, they may even bully girls into thinking they are wrong and create anti-school subcultures within girls.
        • Dominate classroom space
        • May feel pressured to assert their authority by being the 'class clown'
    • Ethnicity
      • Highest achieving groups are Chinese and Indian Asian. Lowest achieving groups are Black Caribbean, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Roma.
      • Explanations for under-achieving
        • Social class and material factors- more likely to live in poorer households (see class and external factors)
        • Language- Many don't have it is a first language or do not speak it at home. Also restricted speech code.
        • Family life and support- Asian families generally have high aspirations for their children and have family cultures that match the school ethos; whereas some minority groups do not.
        • Racism- institutional racism can play a large part in creating anti-school subcultures.
          • Racism among pupils
          • Teacher racism
        • Ethnocentric curriculum- this favours white culture and may mean that ethnic groups that dont wish to assimilate into this culture with form anti-school subcultures and inevitably fail in education.
          • May feel their cultures aren't appreciated.
          • Religious holidays.
          • Uniform may not suit their culture.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »