Child Writing

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  • Child Language (Written)
    • Stages of child writing
      • Holding and controlling the pen
      • correctly forming the shapes of letters
      • Emergent writing
      • Understanding and forming upper and lower case
      • Learning to produce cursive script
      • Understanding and applying principles of sentence construction.
      • Spatial awareness on a line/
      • Planning to construct clear sentences and cohesive texts.
      • Recognising and manipulating language according to an audience.
    • Theorists
      • Britton's three models of writing:
        • Expressive writing is closest to thought and uses a first person perspective; often written based on personal experience
        • Transactional is writing that gets something done. Its impersonal in style and tone and often uses third person.
        • Poetic writing develops gradually and requires skills crafting and shaping language. Often has phonological and descriptive features.
      • Cathy Barclay's seven stages
        • 1. Scribbling: random marks on the page, accompanied by speaking.
        • 2. Mock handwriting:writings/drawings, produces wavy lines indicating and comphrehending lineation.
        • 3. Mock letters: letters are separate things.
        • 4. Conventional letters: writing name as first word, letters on a page, read it as a word.
        • 5.Invented spelling: child spells in the way they comprehend the word; spelt in their own way.
        • 6. Appropriate/phonetic spelling: attach spelling with sounds.
        • 7. Correct spelling: spells most words.
      • Rothery's categories for evaluating child writing
        • Observation/comment: writer makes an observation and follows/mixes it with an evaluation comment.
        • Recount: chronological events following the order: orientation-event-reorientation.
        • Report: a factual and objective description of events or things.
        • Narrative: a story genre where the scene is set for events to occur and be resolved at the end.
      • Kroll's 4 stages of development
        • 1.Prepatory: masters basic motor skills needed to write, learns principles of spelling system.
        • 2. Consolation: child writes in same way that it speaks
        • 3. Differentiation: difference between speaking and writing, recognises different writing styles, makes loss of mistakes.
        • 4. Integration: develops a personal style and comprehends that you can change style according to audience or purpose.
      • Perara's frameworks
        • Chronological: rely on action words and linking ideas with connectives.
        • Non chronological require logical connections between ideas.
    • How are children taught to read?
      • Look and say or whole word approach: learn to recognise whole words rather than individual phonemes. Flashcards with individual words written on them are used, accompanied by related pictures so the child can link the object to the referent.
      • Phonics: children learn the different sounds made by different letters and letter blends and rules on putting them together. The emphasis is on developing phonological awareness and on hearing, differentiating and replicating sounds in spoken words.
        • Analytic phonics is where children learn to break down whole words into phonemes and graphemes, they use rhyme or analogy to learn others words with  similar patterns and learn to recognise one letter sound at a time. They learn the initial letter sounds then the middle and then the final and then consonant blends.
        • Synthetic phonics: children learn to remember 44 phonemes and their related graphemes and to recognise each grapheme sound out each phoneme and blend sounds to produce the words phonetically. And learn to memories phonemes quickly. Children are taught in whole-class groups.
      • Dombey 1999 says that rhyming helps children to relate sound patterns to letter clusters which assists reading and spelling.
      • Konza 2011: phonemic awareness.
    • Reading
      • We read to extend vocabulary, as speech is lexically impoverished, to increase our reading volume and become more intelligent.
      • We read phonically by spliting each word into its constituent parts, we also spell phonically.
    • Five spelling stages
      • Pre-phonemic: imitate writing, scribble
      • Semi-phonemic: link letter shapes and sounds to write words.
      • Phonetic: understand all phonemes are represented by grampheme.
      • Transitional: combine phonic knowledge with visual memory, awareness of combination of letters.
      • Conventional: spells most words correctly.
    • Schwa
      • A reduced vowel sound which is the most common vowel sound in spoken English.
      • Allows unstressed syllables to be pronounced quicker so the main beats of spoken words are easier to place on stressed syllables.
      • Occurs in an unstressed syllable of a multi-syllable word and as a reduced vowel sound in a function word.


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