Child language acquisition - written

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  • Child language acquisition - written
    • Stages of writing
      • Kroll
        • 1. Preparatory (4-7)
          • Masters basic motor skills
          • Learns basic principles of spelling system
        • 2. Consolidation(7-9)
          • Child writes in way it speaks
          • Uses short declarative sentences with 'and' conjunctions
          • Incomplete sentences
        • 3. Differentiation stage
          • Aware of differences between speaking and writing
          • Recognises different writing styles eg. letter
          • Lots of mistakes
          • Use writing guides + frameworks to structure work
          • Write to reflects thoughts + feelings
        • 4. Integration stage (12+)
          • Develops personal style
          • Understands you can change style according to audience + purpose
      • Cathy Barclay
        • 1. Scribbling stage
          • Random marks on a page
          • Writing + scribbles are accompanied by speaking
        • 2. Mock handwriting style
          • Writings + drawings
          • Produce wavy lines which is their understanding of lineation
          • Cursive writing
        • 3. Mock letters
          • Letters are separate things
        • 4. Conventional letters
          • Writing name as first word
          • Child puts letters on a page but is able to read it as words
        • 5. Invented spelling stage
          • Child spells in way they understand the word should be spelt - own way
        • 6. Appropriate/ phonetic spelling
          • Attach spelling with sounds
        • 7. Correct spelling stage
          • Are able to spell most words
    • Cohesion
      • Cohesive devices
        • Temporal markers - before, after
        • Because, since
        • Punctuation - ,;:()-
        • However, in contrast, although
        • And
        • Different sentence types - exclamatory, statements, questions, commands
        • Other sentence types - simple, compound, complex
        • Other pronouns
        • Deixis
        • Order of the text
        • Tenses
        • Paragraphs
        • Headings + subheadings
        • Anaphoric (referring to past) + cataphoric (future) references
        • Continuing a style
    • Genre
      • Joan Rothery
        • Observation/ comment
          • Observation + evaluative comment
        • Recount
          • Chronological sequence of events usually written about something subjectively
        • Report
          • Factual + objective description of events
        • Narrative
          • Story genre eg. orientation - complication - resolution
      • Britton
        • Expressive
          • Resembles speech; 1st person content; personal; 1st mode to develop
        • Poetic
          • Crafting involved; phonological features eg rhyme; descriptive devices
        • Transactional
          • Style of academic essays; impersonal tone; 3rd person; formal
      • Katherine Perera
        • Chronological
          • Rely on linking ideas using connectives
        • Non-chronological
          • Harder to write, rely on logical connections between ideas
    • Spelling
      • Errors
        • Insertion (+letter)
        • Omission      (-letter)
        • Substitution (swap letter)
        • Transposition (transferring previous knowledge)
        • Phonetic spelling
        • Over/under-generalisation of spelling rules
        • Salient (key) sounds
      • Stages
        • 1.Pre-phonemic - imitate writing, scribble, some letter shapes decipherable
        • 2. Semi-phonemic - link letter shapes + sounds to write words
        • 3. Phonetic - understand all phonemes can be represented by graphemes, words become more complete
        • 4. Transitional - combine phonic knowledge with visual memory, awareness of combinations of letters + letter patterns including 'magic e' rule
        • 5. Conventional - spell most words correctly
    • Frameworks
      • Text structure + cohesion
        • Common conventions eg. once upon a time
        • Pattern/ structure
        • Cohesive features?
      • Mechanical control; letters
        • Consistency in letter shapes?
        • Are letters confused/ reversed/ inverted?
        • Spacing?
      • Punctuation
      • Syntactic structures
        • Distinct sentences?
      • Narrative + rhetorical methods
        • Dramatic language?
        • Crafting the text?
      • Spelling
        • Over-generalisation
        • Creative guessing?
        • Patterns?
      • Word selection
        • Range, register + appropriate-ness of words used
      • Semantics
        • What concrete/ abstract meanings are being conveyed?
        • Actions? Feelings? Reflections? Ideas?
        • Descriptions of objects, places, people?

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