Spoken Language


Mode Characteristics

Written ---------------------------------------------- Spoken

Planned ---------------------------------------------- Unplanned

Formal ---------------------------------------------- Informal

Standard  ---------------------------------------------- Non Standard

Transactional  ---------------------------------------------- Interactional

Permanent  ---------------------------------------------- Ephemeral

Distant  ---------------------------------------------- Close

Delayed ---------------------------------------------- Immediate

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Purposes of a Text


Use an example from the text that shows that the text is giving information, for example a declarative sentence. You can then link this to a mode characteristic such as formality, by explaining the source and story.


Use an example from the text that shows the text is entertaining the audience. This could be word types such as adverbs and adjectives, which could be linked to mode characteristics such as interactional if it is a transcript lexis. 


Use an example from the text that shows the text is persuading the reader. The mode characterists that link to this one are mostly transactional, informal/formal, written/spoken and planned. 

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Mixed Mode Texts

These texts contain features of both written and spoken modes. e.g. texts; phone calls; blogs

Deletion - missing out letters e.g. 'gd' (good)

Clipping - missing out the start/end of words e.g. goin

Letter homophones - a letter that sounds like a word e.g. u

Number homophones - a number that sounds like a word e.e. 4

Phonetic spelling - spelling the word as it is said

Acronym - using initial letters only to form a word e.g. lol

Initialism - pronouncing initial letters e.g. btw

Blend - combing two or more parts of words e.g. blog (web + log)

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Language Exam - 2 hours AQA

Section A - 45 marks

  • 1 hour
  • Language and mode
  • Analyse 2 texts; written, spoken, mixed

Write about mode characteristics; purposes (how language features link to this)

Section B - 45 marks

  • 1 hour
  • Child language acquisition
  • 10 marks - write about 5 features in an extract of a child's conversation
  • 35 marks - write an essay including aspects of child language e.g. theories, case studies etc.
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