Child Development Mind-Map

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  • Child Development Revision:
    • LO1
      • Factors to Consider Before Getting Pregnant:
        • Physical Factors: Age, Health, Genetic Disorders, Weight or BMI.
        • Circumstantial Factors:  Relationship Security, Financial Stability, Housing Environment, Familial Support.
      • Pre-Conceptional Care:
        • A Healthy Weight: making sure they eat 5 fruits & vegetables a day and do gentle exercise daily.
          • Being an ideal weight helps with conceiving and lowers the risk of issues in pregnancy, such as high blood pressure.
        • Up-to-Date Vaccinations.
          • If a woman catches infections such Rubella during pregnancy it will harm the baby.
        • Taking Folic Acid Until 12 Weeks Pregnant.
          • Lowers Risk of spinal issues in the baby.
        • Stopping Drinking, Smoking and Doing Drugs.
          • Smoking can cause breathing issues, miscarriage and low birth weight. Alcohol can cause low sperm count, behavioral or learning problems and facial abnormalities. General drugs cause issues as well and should be researched before taken.
            • They should be stopped before conceiving to heighten fertility and allow the woman to adapt to the lifestyle.
      • The Role of a Parent:
        • Food- Children must be provided with the correct nutrition which means parents need to buy, prep and cook food everyday for years.
        • Shelter- must be a suitable environment which may be expensive.
        • Sleep- crucial for child development and growth.
        • Love- children who aren't love may experience difficulties.
        • Customs and Values- children need to understand right and wrong and be supported by their parents. Also parents should plan social time for children.
      • Contraception:
        • 3 Barrier Methods- Condom is 99% effective but if you have a latex allergy you can't use them.  Female Condom is hard to use but can be worn before sex like the Diaphragm.
        • 3 Hormonal Methods: Mini Pill and Combined Pill are 99% reliable but not reliable with sickness and the Implant can last 3 months but doesn't stop STI's.
        • 3 Natural Methods: The Withdrawal method is unreliable, natural family planning  is useful if you have a regular menstrual cycle, Sterilization is surgical and involves blocking the Fallopian tubes and its permanent.
      • Signs of Pregnancy:
        • Emotional or Tired
        • Missed Period
        • Tender Breasts
        • Peeing Frequently
        • Morning Sickness
    • LO2
      • Roles of Heath Professionals:
        • GP- Family doctor that will  confirm pregnancy and deals with non-pregnancy related symptoms.
        • Midwife- conducts antenatal care and identifies risks as well as monitoring a pregnancy up until 28 days post -partum
        • Obstetrician- deals with complicated labour and conducts Cesarean section.
        • Gynecologist- specializes in female reproduction system and treats in-fertility
        • Neonologist- professional in premature babies and small for term babies.
        • Pediatrician- specializes in baby and child care they are present if there is concerns in labour.
      • Antenatal Care:
        • 3 Routine Screening Tests- Blood Pressure checks for Pre-eclampsia. Weight check assures you can an average of 1lb a week. Scans look for SAP (Size, Age and Position) of baby.
        • 3 Diagnostic Tests (if issues are noticed in routine checks)- Ultrasound checks internal organs and spine of baby. Nuchal Fold Translucency detects Down's by looking at the amount of fluid in the baby's neck. Alpha Fetoprotien detects the AFP hormone in blood a low amount indicates Down's
      • Options for Labour :
        • Hospital Births- better for first time mums and high risk births but they can be unsettling.
        • Home Birth- more relaxing but if there is an emergency you need to transfer to Hospital
        • Domino Scheme- You spend antenatal care at home and deliver your baby at Hospital
        • Private Hospital- Comfortable and secure but very expensive.
      • Types of Labour:
        • Normal- delivered without assistance.
        • Caesarian Section- operation to remove the baby from the womb if the baby or mother's health is at risk.
        • Ventouse Extraction- a rubber suction cap is used to ease the baby out if the contractions aren't strong enough or baby is in a bad position.
        • Forceps Delivery- ease the baby out.
        • Induction- if mother or baby is at risk the waters are artificially broken.
        • Breech- baby comes out bottom first and it's usually assisted,
      • Labour:
        • Stage One: The show, Contractions, waters break, diarrhea and the cervix dilates as the baby's head engages.
        • Stage Two: The baby crowns and the midwife will check the umbilical cord isn't around his/her neck. Also the mother will pant between pushing to assure she doesn't tear her perineum.
        • Stage Three: The afterbirth is delivered and the mother is stitched if necessary. Oxytocin or syntocin can be given to help deliver the plancenta.
    • LO3
      • Postnatal Checks:
        • APGAR Appearance Pulse Grimace Activity Respiration
        • Weight
        • Length
        • Head Circumfrence
      • Newborn Reflexes:
        • Sucking - allows them to feed
        • Rooting- turn their head to touch for food.
        • Stepping- when supported they make stepping movements
        • Startle- they clench their fists and arms stiffly away from their body if startled.
        • Falling- they fling their arms back if they think they will be dropped.
        • Grasp- they will grasp your finger if you touch their palm.
      • Postnatal Provision:
        • Health Visitor- supports family until children are school age and developed.
        • GP- helps family if they're ill.
        • Midwife- helps family adjust and gets treatment for mother.
        • Family & Friends- support, advice,help and conversations
        • Partner- Bond with baby, support, night feeds and housework.
      • Conditions for Development:
        • Love- helps children feel emotionally safe and secure.
        • Warmth- heating, clothing and bedding.
        • Sleep- crucial to development and play.
        • Exercise- children become stronger and developed.
        • Cleanliness- hygiene is important while their immune system develops.
        • Stimulation- children must play to learn.
        • Listening and Talking- children need social and intellectual development.
        • Routine - helps children feel secure and parents need a schedule to get things done and help with nutrition.
        • SIDS- parents must be aware and prevent it.
      • Discipline and Behavior.
        • Boundaries- children need to know what is right and wrong.
        • Empathy- children must learn to consider other people's emotions before their own.
        • Safety- rules must be in place to help children be safe independently
        • Positive Behavior- must be promoted and praise or scold certain behaviors. (Reward Charts)
    • LO4
      • Signs of Illness:
        • Irregular Temperature
        • Crying /Irritable Behaviour
        • Vomiting or Diarrhea
        • Lathargic and Sleepy
        • Runny Nose
        • Lack of Appetite
        • Headache
        • Pale or Red Skin Tone
      • Immunization:
        • Natural Immunity can be passed to a baby through breast milk and from the placenta.
        • Vaccinations are used to produce antibodies which increase immunity.
        • For ethical reasons some parents might refuse to get their children vaccinated which can be fatal if their child gets a disease such as Meningitis.
      • Hospital Worthy Symptoms:
        • Fitting
        • Sunken Fontanel.
        • Dehydration
        • Drowsiness
        • Vomiting or Abdominal Pain for 12hrs
        • Blood in Stools
        • Purple/ Red Rash
      • Needs of an Ill Child (PIES):
        • PHYSICAL - physical therapy, rest,adjusted routine, monitoring.
        • INTELLECTUAL -mental stimulation such as a book, game, film, toy or puzzle.
        • EMOTIONAL - empathy, reassurance, positivity
        • SOCIAL - sympathy, optimism, reassurance
      • Diet-Related Illness:
        • Obesity- balanced diets with smaller portion sizes are important as well as physical activity.
        • Deficiency- Balance nutrition so the child gets vitamins and minerals include multivitamins and iron pills if necessary.
        • Allergy- a deadly reaction so always carry an epipen and check food ingredients.
        • Intolerance- a mild reaction which can result in vomiting so always check ingredients to avoid it.
    • LO5
      • 3 Common Accidents:
        • Falls- run the scrape under cold water and apply a plaster. Remove obstacles from the stairs and get a safety gate.
        • Burn- severe burns should be treated at hospital. Always supervise your child and apply sunscreen.
        • Electric Shock- turn off power and call ambulance. Don't overload sockets and buy outlet covers.
      • Safety Marks:
        • BSI mark- identifies when a safety product is reliable.
        • Lion Mark- identifies if a toy meets British standards.
        • Age Advice Symbol- identifies what age range it isn't suitable for (it may have a choking risk)
        • CE Symbol- identifies if toy is to EU standards.
        • Nightwear Label- identifies that the clothing meets flammable performance test.
      • Safety Hazards:
        • Physical Hazards- falling or tripping over things as well as cuts or burns.
        • Security Hazards- open doors or windows.
        • Fire Hazards- electrical or open fire risks.
        • Food Safety Hazards- out of date or poorly stored food are risks.
        • Personal Safety Hazards- Internet safety and stranger danger or road safety are risks.
          • INTERNET SAFETY - restrict websites they can access and help them practice online safety.
          • ROAD SAFETY - look and listen from a young age and have fences if you live near a road.

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