Child Development notes GCSE AQA

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  • Created on: 29-09-12 19:54
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Child Development Revision Notes
1. Parenthood
The Family
A family is a group of people living together, usually related by blood marriage or adoption,
it may or may not include children.
Functions of a family
Support
Provide and Protect
Educate and Encourage
Care and Love
Teach and Train
Think SPECT
Family Types:
Step-Family: When one or both people in a couple, with children from a previous relationship,
re-marry or co-habit.
Advantages: Child has both role models
There may be more income
The family may have a better quality of life
Disadvantages: Children may not bond with the step-parent
Sibling rivalry is common, especially amongst children of similar ages
Children may have limited access to their biological parent
Adopted Family: Parent/parents legally adopt a child/children. It is permanent.
Advantages: It gives the children a family
It allows the children to enjoy a good home life
It provides opportunities for children and for adults who are infertile
Disadvantages: Children have to adjust to new home and family
Children might not get to see birth parents
When adopting younger children, when do you tell them their adopted?
Residential Care Home: Children without families or with parents who for some reason are
unable to look after children may live in these homes
Advantages: The child may have other people around them who have experienced the ame
situation a them, understaning what they're going theough
There will be lots of support from the support from the people around them
May provide a better home environment than their previous home
Disadvantages: There won't be much privacy with lots of people around
The child may not get along with everbody in the residential care home
Nuclear Family: Parents and their children live together away from the rest of their family
Advantages: More privacy
Parent's can make their own decisions

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They can choose when to visit the extended family
Disadvantages: Children may not have close relationships with their other relatives e.g.
grandparents
Child care will have to be paid for
No family will be around for financial help
Extended Family: A large family group who all live together or locally e.g.…read more

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Family Structures:
There are more single parent and step families than 50 years ago, as the 1971 law made it
easier to do so, and divorce is more socially acceptable
There are more single parent and unmarried two-parent families because it is now more
socially acceptable to have children without being married
More people are choosing to not have children, or to have children at a later stage, due to
the fact that women working is now seen as socially acceptable, and because we have…read more

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Factors to Consider when choosing Equipment
Size (may be too big for house)
Cost (may be too expensive)
Safety
Durability
Brand
Suitability
Environmental Issues
Provisions of a safe environment:
Outdoors:
Play equipment must be suitable for child's age and well-maintained
Bark chips or something similar should be on the floor to soften falls
Remove any rubbish e.g.…read more

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By 3, they explore more, risk of drowning or being hit by car
At 4, they are more independent, riding a bike, climbing trees-cuts
Accident Prevention:
Be aware of hazards in different environments
Supervise child
Use suitable equipment that has been approved for that age
Behave safely to set a good example for child to learn from
Problem First Aid Hospital
Burns Put cold water for at least Yes- if sin is broken/blistering
10mins, dry gently, don't or burn covers large area or
apply plaster…read more

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Stings Remove with tweezers if
possible, use anti sting
cream or calamine lotion
2. Pregnancy
Reproduction:
The Menstrual Cycle:
1) Lining of uterus breaks down. Bleeding starts, lasts for 4-7 days.
2) Lining of the uterus builds up from ay 4-14 forms thick layer of blood vessels, ready to
receive fertilised egg.
3) Egg released from one of the ovaries.
4) Lining of uterus maintained day 14-28. If no fertilised egg arrives, the lining breaks
down again.…read more

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Types of What it does Advantages Disadvantages
contraceptive
Male Condom Sperm stopped -Available w/o -Must be put on and
from entering prescription an no removed carefully
vagina medication needed -Some people allergic to
-Protection against latex
unwanted
pregnancy and STIs
-can be carried an
used whenever
needed
Male Sterilisation Vas deferens are -Very reliable -Requires initial medical
cut and tied, so -No ongoing procedure
sperm cannot mix medication or -Not easily reversible if you
with semen supplies needed change your mind
-Permanent, for
men who…read more

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IUD Implantation of -Excellent -No protection from STIs
any fertilised protection from -Additional bleeding an
eggs is unwanted cramps possible
prevented pregnancy -Small number of women
-No medication, allergic to copper
lasts 10 years
-More reversible
than sterilisation
Intrauterine Progesterone -Excellent -No protection from STIs
System slowly released, protection against -Can cause tender breasts
stops sperm unwanted and acne
reaching egg pregnancy
-No medication,
lasts 7 years
-More reversible
than sterilisation
-Less bleeding and
cramping than IUD
Combined Pill Prevents ovaries -Reduced periods, -No protection…read more

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The Natural Relies on timing -Doesn't need -Needs careful monitoring of
Method of the menstrual medication or the woman's cycle
cycle supplies -No protection from STIs
-Can be used to -Unreliable
track fertility when
woman decides to
become pregnant
Withdrawal Penis removed -Always available -Requires discipline
method before man -No medication or -May reduce enjoyment of
ejaculates so supplies needed sex
sperm cannot -No protection from STIs
reach cervix
Pre-conceptual Care: The care of the mother-to-be's health before conception.…read more

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Babies who are at risk should be given the hepatitis B vaccine at birth to prevent infection
and serious liver disease later on in life
If you get chickenpox while you are pregnant, the risk to the developing foetus is small,
however the child may develop shingles during their first few years of life.…read more

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