Science Chemistry Add Pt1

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  • Chemistry Add Pt 1
    • Covalent bonding
      • When atoms of two non-metals combine, they share electrons to achieve noble gas electronic structures
        • These structures are stable
      • The outer electron shells of atoms overlap
        • This sharing forms a covalent bond which holds the two atoms together
          • Covalent bonds are very strong
      • A chlorine atom has seven outer electrons so it shares one more from another atom
        • It can share from another chlorine atom or any non metal atom
      • An oxygen atom has six outer electrons so needs two more to make eight
        • In water, the oxygen shares two of its electrons, one with each hydrogen to make H2O
          • To make a oxygen molecule
            • Oxygen atoms share two electrons with another oxygen atom to make a double bond; two shared pairs of electrons
      • How covalent bonds work
        • The nuclei of both atoms involved in a covalent bond are positively charged
        • The electrons involved in the bond are attracted to both nuclei
          • And so remain a fixed distance apart from each nucleus
            • This distance is called the bond length
    • Ionic bonding
      • When a metal reacts with a non metal the metal atoms lose electrons
        • They become positive ions, the non-metal atoms gain electrons and become negative ions
      • The oppositely charged ions are electrostatic-ally attracted, this is ionic bonding
      • Conducting electricity
        • Ionic compounds can conduct electricity
          • But only if the ions are free to carry the electric current
        • Solid sodium chloride does not conduct as the ions cannot move
          • Dissolved in water or molten it can conduct electricity
            • This suggests the bonding is ionic

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