GCSE chemistry revision

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  • Chemistry
    • The rate and extent of chemical change
      • Rates of reaction
        • Concentration or pressure
          • When concentration or pressure increases
            • The particles are more crowded
            • The frequency of collisions increase
            • The rate of reaction increases
        • Surface area to volume
          • When the surface are to volume increases
            • More particles are exposed
            • The rate of reaction is increased
            • More frequent collisions
        • Temperature
          • When the temperature is incrreased
            • proportion of successful collisions increases
            • Particles move more quickly
            • The energy of the particles increase
        • Catalyst
          • Speeds up the reaction without changing it
            • Isn't used up at the end of the reaction
      • Reversible reactions
        • Changing the position of equilibrium
          • Haber process
            • N2(g) + 3H2(g) ? 2NH3(g)
            • Reacting nitrogen with hydrogen to make ammonia
          • Changing pressure
            • when pressure increases equilibrium moves to the fewest molecules of gas
          • Changing temperature
            • when temp increased, equilibrium moves in endothermic direction
          • Changing concentration
            • if the concentration of reactant increases equilibrium moves away from the reactant
        • A + B ? C + D
        • Endo in one direction=Exo in the opposite
        • Dynamic equilibrium
          • Forward and back still happening
          • forward and backwards=same rate of reaction
          • All the reaction substance remains constant
    • Organic chemistry
      • Alkenes and alkanes
        • Combustion
          • Complete
            • Needs plenty oxygen so the carbon can oxided
          • Incomplete
            • Supply of oxygen is poor and carbon monoxide is produced
        • Alkanes
          • The alkanes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons
            • hydrogen atoms in an alkane is double the number of carbon atoms, plus two
        • Alkenes
          • Alkenes are a homologous series of hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon double bond
            • Hydrogen atoms in an akene is twice the amount of the carbon atoms
          • Alkenes are unsaturated
      • Alcohols
        • The alcohols are a homologous series of organic compounds. They all contain the functional group –OH,
        • The names of alcohols end with ‘ol’, eg ethanol.
      • Carboxylic acids and esters
        • Carboxylic acids
          • Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl functional group (-COOH). Carboxylic acids end in '-oic acid'.
          • Carboxylic acids take their names from their ‘parent’ alkanes. For example, ethane is the ‘parent’ alkane of ethanoic acid.
        • Making a easter
          • They can be made in the laboratory by reacting an alcohol with an organic acid
            • Sulfuric acid is used as a catalyst
    • Chemical analysis
      • Chromatography
        • Gas
          • Stationary phase
            • A thin layer of inert liquid on an inert solid support
          • Mobile phase
            • An inert gas e.g helium
        • Paper
          • Mobile phase
            • An aqueous liquid or a non-aqueous solvent
            • Each chemical has a dynamic equilibrium between phases
          • Stationary phase
            • Sheet of chromatography paper
            • Each chemical has a dynamic equilibrium between phases
        • Thin layer
          • Stationary phase
            • Thin layer of inert substance e.g silica
              • Supported on a flat nonreactive surface
      • Titrations
        • Volumetric
          • titration experiment can be carried out to accurately measure the volume of substances that react in chemical reactions.
          • This technique utilises a standard solution which is titrated against portions of an unknown concentration until the reaction is just complete.
    • Chemistry of the atmosphere
      • Developing the atmosphere
        • The earths early atmosphere
          • Large amounts of carbon dioxide
          • Little or no oxygen
          • small amounts of other gasses such as ammonia and methane
        • The modern atmosphere
          • 80% nitrogen
          • 20% oxygen
          • Small amounts of other gasses
        • How oxygen increased
          • Plants produced photosynthesis to make food
            • Photosynthesis reacts water with carbon dioxide to produce oxygen and glucose
        • How carbon dioxide decreased
          • Dissolved in water as oceans formed
          • Photosynthesis by plants
          • Trapped in carbonate rocks
      • Polluting the atmosphere
        • The greenhouse effect
          • Without it the earth would be 18 degrees cooler
        • Human activities
          • Farming cattle
          • Farming rice in paddy fields
            • Releases methane
              • Farming cattle
          • Burning fossil fuels
            • releases carbon dioxide
          • Deforestation
            • releases carbon dioxide
        • Global climate change
          • Until 200 years ago all changes were natural
          • global warming is different as climate change as global warming is used to describe the warming of the planet

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