Section 4: The making of a superpower- the USSR and the world.

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  • Created on: 27-04-13 09:05
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  • Chapter 17: The new world order.
    • Why was the USSR considered a superpower in the post-war world?
      • Political
        • The Yalta Conference (Feb.1945)
          • Joint 'Allied Declaration on Liberated Europe'- victorious powers establish democratic regimes, in occupied territories.
            • Stalin's inter. legit. Soviet 'sphere of influence'- NO ROOM FOR WESTERN DEMOCRACY!!
              • Ordered R.A. establish comm. govs.: Eastern Ger., Czech., Hung., Pol., Rom. & Ber.
            • Plans: post-war division of Germany (x4) zones of occupation (American, British, Russian and French)- under a control commisioned based in Berlin.
          • Exporting Stalinism to eastern Europe.
            • Established regimes: 'People's Democracies' throughout eastern Europe.
              • Politburo- TOP of each C.P.
                • In new 'P.D.' opp. suppressed through mix of terror & propaganda.
                  • EXAMPLES.
                    • Romania: Free elections held in Hungary..return of a non-communist Smallholders' Party
                    • Poland: merging London & Lublin..short-lived alliance..President Boleslaw Bierut (hard line Stalinist)-1952 turned the country into a People's Republic.
                    • 'Eastern Bloc'-countries controlled from Moscow-forced them to act certain way..bring max. benefit to USSR.
        • Exporting Stalinism to eastern Europe.
          • Established regimes: 'People's Democracies' throughout eastern Europe.
            • Politburo- TOP of each C.P.
              • In new 'P.D.' opp. suppressed through mix of terror & propaganda.
                • EXAMPLES.
                  • Romania: Free elections held in Hungary..return of a non-communist Smallholders' Party
                  • Poland: merging London & Lublin..short-lived alliance..President Boleslaw Bierut (hard line Stalinist)-1952 turned the country into a People's Republic.
                  • 'Eastern Bloc'-countries controlled from Moscow-forced them to act certain way..bring max. benefit to USSR.
        • COLD WAR..!
          • Period (hostility) between SU & USA/other Western powers
            • Two sides continually spied on spied on each other & anticipated declaration of war.
              • However...Berlin blockade (1948) proved an embarrassment to Stalin...Western sectors (Berlin) sit. heart (Comm. controlled Ger.) stood glittering example of achv. of capitalism.
                • 24th June..Stalin ordered closure all land and water routes into Berlin. All: *trains *barges *vehicles STOPPED & TURNED BACK.
          • Allowed S. maintain control over R. econ. & soc. under banner NATIONAL DEFENCE.
            • However...Berlin blockade (1948) proved an embarrassment to Stalin...Western sectors (Berlin) sit. heart (Comm. controlled Ger.) stood glittering example of achv. of capitalism.
              • 24th June..Stalin ordered closure all land and water routes into Berlin. All: *trains *barges *vehicles STOPPED & TURNED BACK.
      • Economic
        • Stalin delib. created an economy tha was geared to war!
        • The Fourth Five-Year Plan (heavy industry).
          • 1946: Fourth Five-Year Plan aimed at national reconstruction.
          • End 1947: hydro-electric power station (Dneiper Dam) back in operation & coal prod. (Donets Basin) overtaken that of 1948).
          • Soviet planners allocated 7.4 billion roubles (defence spending in first year of new Plan).
        • Economic Boom!
          • End of Plan (1950) steel prod. was 49% above 1940 figure. Coal prod. was 57% higher than 1940, cement- 75% higher, glass-90% higher & elec. 87% higher. Industrial prod. exceeded the targets set in 4th FYP.
            • Expense of living standards, exmaple: *Housing-50% Soviet accom. destroyed during WW2...remainder poorly maintained. *1946: 90% central heating syst. Mosow didn't work.
              • Regime deliberately kept prices high and wages low-encrg. women stay labour force (similar to ALexanders II's Eman. 1961 consequence?
                • 1946: Fourth Five-Year Plan aimed at national reconstruction.
              • Economic Boom!
                • End of Plan (1950) steel prod. was 49% above 1940 figure. Coal prod. was 57% higher than 1940, cement- 75% higher, glass-90% higher & elec. 87% higher. Industrial prod. exceeded the targets set in 4th FYP.
                  • Expense of living standards, exmaple: *Housing-50% Soviet accom. destroyed during WW2...remainder poorly maintained. *1946: 90% central heating syst. Mosow didn't work.
                    • Regime deliberately kept prices high and wages low-encrg. women stay labour force (similar to ALexanders II's Eman. 1961 consequence?
                  • Russia's claim to being a superpower depended on war ability (thus dismissing thoughts/focus towards the Russian people's living standards).
            • Russia's claim to being a superpower depended on war ability (thus dismissing thoughts/focus towards the Russian people's living standards).
          • The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON)
            • Janunary 1949- SU set up COMECON (HQ in Moscow).
              • Organised trafe agreements between mebers; arranging credit and preventing overproduction of goods. Achieved throught a series of FYPs (4th imp.).
                • Bilateral trade agreements (trade agreements that bring a shared advantage to two countries concerned).
            • Aim: co-ordinate economic growth of countries (part of the Soviet bloc): the SU, Bulgaria, Czech., Hung.,Pol. & Romania.
              • Organised trafe agreements between mebers; arranging credit and preventing overproduction of goods. Achieved throught a series of FYPs (4th imp.).
                • Bilateral trade agreements (trade agreements that bring a shared advantage to two countries concerned).
            • Success: establishing railway network & electricity grid across Eastern Europe. Also hoped would discourage member states from having economic tties with West & compensate (limited extent)- Marshall Aid.
        • Military
          • USSR's status as superpower confimed by deve. R. nuclear weapon.
          • Soviet scientists started working on atmoic research in 1940 (year before the USA).
            • 24 July: Potsdam Conferences, Truman told S. US poss., 'a new weapon of unusual destructive force.'
              • S. told Molotov- 'Let them. We'll have to tlak it over with Kurchatov and get him to speed things up.' 24 July.
                • Leading Soviet atomic scientists-Yuri Kurchatov.
                  • S. called scientists together: 'A single demmand of you comrades. Provide us with atomic weapons in the shortest possible time...it will remove a great danger to us.'
                    • Soviet bomb project quickly caught up with its American rival, due to five reasons...
                      • Military
                        • USSR's status as superpower confimed by deve. R. nuclear weapon.
                        • Soviet scientists started working on atmoic research in 1940 (year before the USA).
                          • 24 July: Potsdam Conferences, Truman told S. US poss., 'a new weapon of unusual destructive force.'
                            • S. told Molotov- 'Let them. We'll have to tlak it over with Kurchatov and get him to speed things up.' 24 July.
                              • Leading Soviet atomic scientists-Yuri Kurchatov.
                                • S. called scientists together: 'A single demmand of you comrades. Provide us with atomic weapons in the shortest possible time...it will remove a great danger to us.'
                                  • Soviet bomb project quickly caught up with its American rival, due to five reasons...
                                    • FIRST: Russai's control over the Eastern Bloc: East Ger. & Czech. (Soviet sphere of influence)large deposits of uranium, essen. ingr. fist gen. atomic bombs!
                                    • SECOND: Stalinist command economy ideally suited to weapon production (nuclear weap.)..(heavy industry focus).
                                    • THIRDLY: Physicists invlvd. aided by Soviet spies (access Amr. & Brit. nuclear secrets). For example: Klaus Fuchs- German-born scientist-US worked on Manhattan Project at Los Alamos-passed great deal of imp. info. to Russians.
                                    • FOURTH: Soviet sci. subj. continuous prop. emph. imp. project 'world peace' & defence- Motherland (similar to 'The Great Patriotic War')
                                      • CONSEQUENTLY: scientists collaborated enthusiastically.
                                    • FIFTH: Beria (Head of NKVD) put in charge of bomb project. Therefore, maj. nuclear scientists were never purged (1940s) & intellectual freedom- indication of bomb significance to Stalin and Beria.
                                    • *RDS-1: first Soviet atomic bomb (tetsed 22 Sep. 1949)-remote area of Kazakhstan. *Amr. took 6 yrs. deve. atomic bomb : *SU took less than 4 yrs.
                                      • 1953: Hydrogen bomb (1st codenamed- 'layer cake'-tested in Kazakhastan (1953)- 10x more powerful!
                                        • SIGNIFICANT: demon. to world awesome power of the Russian military. Essentially showed that R. & Amr. equals in terms of mili. tech. Soviet nuclear succes guaranteed survival of socialism (USSR) & eastern Europe..created military stalemate (between 2 world's superpowers)!
                                      • SIGNIFICANT: demon. to world awesome power of the Russian military. Essentially showed that R. & Amr. equals in terms of mili. tech. Soviet nuclear succes guaranteed survival of socialism (USSR) & eastern Europe..created military stalemate (between 2 world's superpowers)!
                      • FIRST: Russai's control over the Eastern Bloc: East Ger. & Czech. (Soviet sphere of influence)large deposits of uranium, essen. ingr. fist gen. atomic bombs!
                      • SECOND: Stalinist command economy ideally suited to weapon production (nuclear weap.)..(heavy industry focus).
                      • THIRDLY: Physicists invlvd. aided by Soviet spies (access Amr. & Brit. nuclear secrets). For example: Klaus Fuchs- German-born scientist-US worked on Manhattan Project at Los Alamos-passed great deal of imp. info. to Russians.
                      • FOURTH: Soviet sci. subj. continuous prop. emph. imp. project 'world peace' & defence- Motherland (similar to 'The Great Patriotic War')
                        • CONSEQUENTLY: scientists collaborated enthusiastically.
                      • FIFTH: Beria (Head of NKVD) put in charge of bomb project. Therefore, maj. nuclear scientists were never purged (1940s) & intellectual freedom- indication of bomb significance to Stalin and Beria.
                      • *RDS-1: first Soviet atomic bomb (tetsed 22 Sep. 1949)-remote area of Kazakhstan. *Amr. took 6 yrs. deve. atomic bomb : *SU took less than 4 yrs.
                        • 1953: Hydrogen bomb (1st codenamed- 'layer cake'-tested in Kazakhastan (1953)- 10x more powerful!
      • Why was the USSR considered a superpower in the post-war world?
        • Political
          • The Yalta Conference (Feb.1945)
            • Joint 'Allied Declaration on Liberated Europe'- victorious powers establish democratic regimes, in occupied territories.
              • Stalin's inter. legit. Soviet 'sphere of influence'- NO ROOM FOR WESTERN DEMOCRACY!!
                • Ordered R.A. establish comm. govs.: Eastern Ger., Czech., Hung., Pol., Rom. & Ber.
              • Plans: post-war division of Germany (x4) zones of occupation (American, British, Russian and French)- under a control commisioned based in Berlin.
          • COLD WAR..!
            • Period (hostility) between SU & USA/other Western powers
              • Two sides continually spied on spied on each other & anticipated declaration of war.
              • Allowed S. maintain control over R. econ. & soc. under banner NATIONAL DEFENCE.
            • Economic
              • Stalin delib. created an economy tha was geared to war!
              • The Fourth Five-Year Plan (heavy industry).
                • End 1947: hydro-electric power station (Dneiper Dam) back in operation & coal prod. (Donets Basin) overtaken that of 1948).
                • Soviet planners allocated 7.4 billion roubles (defence spending in first year of new Plan).
              • The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON)
                • Janunary 1949- SU set up COMECON (HQ in Moscow).
                  • Aim: co-ordinate economic growth of countries (part of the Soviet bloc): the SU, Bulgaria, Czech., Hung.,Pol. & Romania.
                    • Success: establishing railway network & electricity grid across Eastern Europe. Also hoped would discourage member states from having economic tties with West & compensate (limited extent)- Marshall Aid.

              Comments

              NZLHistory

              This is an excellent summary of the Soviet Union's superpower status post 1945, with sections on military, diplomatic and economic position.

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