Unit 2 Biology

  • Created by: AlexxxF
  • Created on: 11-03-15 19:03
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  • Cells, tissues and Organs.
    • Animal and plant cells
      • Nucleus: Controls the cells activities
      • Cytoplasm: Where many chemical reactions take place.
      • A Cell Membrane: Controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell
      • Mitochondria: Where protein synthesis takes place
      • Plants and Algae cells also have:
        • A rigid cell wall made of cellulose for support
        • Chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll.
        • A permanent vacuole containing cell sap.
    • Bacteria and Yeast
      • Bacteria cells have a CELL MEMBRANE and a CELL WALL, which surrounds Cytoplasm
      • Doesn't have a nucleus, so genetic information is in the cytoplasm
        • When Bacteria multiply they form a colony. Colonies can be seen by the naked eye.
          • Bacteria cells have a CELL MEMBRANE and a CELL WALL, which surrounds Cytoplasm
      • Yeast is a single cell organism
        • Yeast cells have a NUCLEUS, Cytoplasm, and a membrane  surrounded by a CELL WALL
    • Specialised Cells
      • The structure of a cell is linked to its function.
        • If a cell has lots of Mitochondria is needs lots of energy
        • The cells needs lots of protein if it needs Ribosomes.
    • Diffusion
      • Diffusion is the spreading out of gas particles or any substance in solution
      • The net movement into or out of cells depends on the concentration of particles on either side of the cell membrane
        • Concentration gradient
      • The larger the difference in concentration the faster the rate of diffusion.
    • Tissues and Organs.
      • A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function
      • Animal tissues include:
        • Muscle tissue- Contract to bring movement
        • Glandular tissue- produces substances such as enzymes and hormones
        • Epithelial tissue- Covers some parts of the body.
      • Plant tissues include:
        • Mesophyll- Can photosynthesise
        • Untitled
      • Organs are made up of tissues
    • Digestive System
      • The food we ear needs to be changed from insoluble molecules to soluble molecules, so they can be absorbed into the blood.
      • The Digestive System includes:
        • Glands (pancreas and salivary glands) which absorb digestive juices
        • Stomach and small intestine where digestion occurs
        • Liver which produces bile
        • Small intestine where soluble food is obsorbed
        • Large intestine where water is taken from undigested food


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