Carbohydrates ,Lipids and Proteins

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  • Carbohydrates ,Lipids and Proteins.
    • Carbohydrates
      • Simple Sugars
        • Made of one Sugar Unit
        • Sweet
        • Soluble in water
        • readily transported in blood
          • dissolved in the plasma and provide cells with energy to be released in respiration
        • Small - diffuse through partially permeable membranes.
          • affects osmosis
      • Complex Carbohydrates
        • Long chains of sugar units bonded together
        • known as polysaccharides
        • NOT sweet
        • insoluble
          • Do not dissolve
        • do not affect water potential of cell
          • Don't affect Osmosis
      • Food tests
        • Test for starch
          • Add Iodine
            • if starch present = Blue/Black
            • If no starch present = Brown
        • Test for simple Sugar
          • 2cm volume of solution being tested + equal amounts of blue benedict's solution
            • Heat in boiling water bath for 1 min
              • simple sugar present = brick red precipitate
              • No sugar = remain blue
      • Examples
        • Glucose
        • Sucrose
        • Simple
        • complex
        • Starch
        • Cellulose
        • Glycogen
    • Lipids
      • made of a small molecule , GLYCEROL to which 3 fatty acids are bonded
      • Otherwise known as fats and oils
      • insoluble in water but not alchhol and other lipids
      • jobs in the body
        • Food/energy store
        • Insulation against heat loss
        • A source fat soluble vitamins
        • Used to make cholesterol & steroid hormones
        • used to make cell membranes
      • Food Tests
        • wipe on paper, if fat present it will turn translucent
        • equal volume of ethanol and water added and shaken
          • if present a cloudy white emulsion forms
    • Proteins
      • polymers made of long chains of amino acids
        • There are 20 types of amino acid
        • amino acid and therefore protein molecules contain nitrogen
      • funtions
        • HOrmones
        • Antibodies
        • Enzymes
        • structuaral EG. muscle hair,nails.
      • denaturing of proteins
        • sensitive to changes in PH and high temperatures
      • Food Tests
        • equal volume of colourless sodium of potassium hydroxide to the soluble extract and shake.
          • add a few drops of pale blue 1% copper sulphate
            • Shake
              • lilac colour = protein
              • Turquoise colour = no protein
        • BIURET TEST
      • Examples
        • Haemoglobin
        • Insulin
        • Collagen
        • Amylase

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