C4 Summary

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  • C4 Summary
    • Atomic structure and atomic bonding
      • Isotopes are elements that have atoms of the same atomic number but different mass numbers
      • Dot and cross models can be used to represent the ionic bonding in compounds
      • Sodium chloride and magnesium oxide form giant ionic lattices as their ions attract
      • The electron is made up of protons and neutrons
      • Metals  form positive ions as they lose electrons
    • The periodic table and convalent bonding
      • Non-metals combine by sharing electrons
      • Carbon dioxide and water have low melting points as the inter-molecular forces are weak
      • The period to which an element belongs is the same as the number of occupied electron shells
    • Groups
      • The group number is the same as the number of electrons in the outer shell
      • Rubidium and caesium are group 1 metals which react violently with water to give of hydrogen and make an alkaline solution
      • Group 1 metals have similar properties as they all need to lose one electron from their outershell
      • Flame tests can be used to identify the presence of lithium,sodium and potassium
      • if a group 1 metal reacts with a group 7 non-metal the word equation for the formation of a metal halide can be constructed
    • Metals and water
      • Copper compounds are often blue,iron (II) compounds are often green and iron (III) compounds are often orange/brown
      • The thermal decomposition of transition metal carbonates results in the metal oxide and carbon dioxide being made
      • Cu^2+ ions react with sodium hydroxide to make a blue solid in a precipitation reaction
      • Metals have high melting points due to their strong metallic bonding
      • Super conductors conduct electricity with little or no resistance
      • Drinking water is purified by filitration,sedimentation and chlorination
      • Sulfates in water can be tested using barium chloride, Halides, can be tested using silver nitrate


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