C15-Using our reasources

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  • C15-Using our reasources
    • C15.7-Making fertilizers in the lab
      • Ammonia is used to make Nitric acid
      • Nitric acid added to more ammonia creates fertilizer
    • C15.6-The economics of the Haber Process
      • Higher pressures would increase yield, but is more expensive
      • The reaction could be done more efficiently at a lower temperature but would take too lng
    • C15.2-Useful alloys
      • Pure iron is too soft to be useful.
      • Copper, Gold, & Aluminium are all alloyed with other metals to make them harder
      • Carefully controlled amounts of Carbon and other elements are added to Iron to make steels with different qualities
      • Alloys are harder than metals as the regular layers in metals are distorted by different sized atoms in alloys
      • Important examples of steels are
        • Low Carbon Steels which are soft but easy to shape
        • High Carbon which is very hard but brittle
        • Stainless steels which are resistant to corrosion
    • C15.8-Making fertilizers in industry
      • Fertilizers provide the plant with Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Potassium
      • The Nitrogen comes from ammonia
      • Phosphorus is from a rock which is treated with fertilizers to make
      • The potassium is from salts that are mined mined
    • C15.4-Glass, Ceramics & Composites
      • Composites are usually made from 2 materials, with one as a binder for the other, improving a desired property which neither could offer alone
      • Clay ceramics include pottery and bricks. They are made by shaping wet clay and heating in the furnace
      • Soda glass is made from heating a mixture of sand, limestone and sodium bicarbonate. Borosilicate glass is made from sand and Boron trioxide, and melts at a higher temperature than soda glass
    • C15.5-Making Ammonia - The Haber process
      • The Haber process is carried out at 450 degrees and 200atm
      • Ammonia is mostly important for making fertilizers
      • Ammonia is made from Hydrogen and Nitrogen in the Haber process
      • All Nitrogen and Hydrogen are recycled
      • N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3(l) + H
    • C15.1-Rusting
      • Oxygen and Water are required for iron to rust
      • Providing a barrier between iron from any air or water protects the iron from rusting
      • Sacrificial protection protects the iron even when exposed to air or water by attaching it to a more reactive metal
    • C15.3-Properties of polymers
      • Monomers affect the properties of the polymers they produce
      • Thermosoftening polymers will soften of melt easily when heated as their intermolecular forces are weak
      • Changing the reaction conditions can affect the properties of the polymer
      • thermosetting polymers will not soften bacause of their crosslinking which will char if heated strongly
  • C15.3-Properties of polymers
    • Monomers affect the properties of the polymers they produce
    • Thermosoftening polymers will soften of melt easily when heated as their intermolecular forces are weak
    • Changing the reaction conditions can affect the properties of the polymer
    • thermosetting polymers will not soften bacause of their crosslinking which will char if heated strongly
  • Higher tier only

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