Black and Tan Fantasy 1927 by Duke Ellington

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  • Black and Tan Fantasy 1927 - Duke Ellington
    • Background
      • Mother and Father = Pianists
      • Played ragtime professionally by 17
      • Handpicked his players and wrote individually for them
      • New York. The Cotton Club - Jungle sounds
      • Bigger ensembles
    • Harmony
      • Based around 12 bar blues
      • Includes 7th chords, 2ndary dom. and sub. chords
      • More advanced classical progs. = cycle of 5ths (b19-20) Bb-Gb
      • Sub. chords replace harmonies in 12 b sequence b37 + 49
      • Piano solo=wider range of harmonies. Dim. 7th chords b58+63
      • Coda = plagal cadences in Bb Minor (unusual)
    • Melody
      • Based on chorus - 'The Holy City' - rhythm aug. tonality now minor not major.
      • Sax interlude - begins passage based around whole-tone scale. Some chromaticism bar 25-16
        • Ellington's solo-mostly diatonic. some chromatic passing notes mimic effect of blues notes
      • Miley's trumpet solo-'blue' minor 3rds and 7ths. More diss. clashes. 2 octaves range
    • Structure
      • Bars 1-2=Chorus 1 (intro)
      • Bars 13-28=interlude
        • Bars 29-52=Chorus 2+3
      • Bars 53-64=Chorus 4
        • Bars 65-76=Chorus 5
          • Bars 77-86=Chorus 6
      • Bars 87-90=Coda
        • Head=12 bar blues x6 in total
          • 1st + 2nd separated by 16 bar section
            • Concludes with Coda
    • Texture
      • Sustained chordal accomp. Low in register
      • Chrouses 1,2,5+6= simple melody homophonic texture
      • Piano texture (chorus 4) 'stride' accomp.
    • Rhythm and Metre
      • Seriousness of the opening= constant crotchets
      • Enlived sax. triplets + swung quavers
      • 2nd trumpet solo=some repeated rhythmic ideas based on triplet crotchets
      • Swung rhythm abandoned for sombre mood of coda

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