Jazz 1910-1950

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  • Created by: MkNeptune
  • Created on: 12-05-17 13:53
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  • Jazz from 1910-1950
    • Major Musicians
      • Louis Armstrong
        • West End Blues (1928)
          • Dixieland
          • 12 bar blues progression
            • Uses chords I, IV, V
          • Frequent blues notes
            • b3, b7 and b5
          • Collective improvisation
          • 6 bar trumpet cadenza
            • 2 octaves and third range
            • Sextuplet rise
          • 1st chorus: 3 part harmony
            • Armstrong melody
            • Clarinets in 3rds
            • Long trombone notes
          • 2nd chorus: Improv in trombone
            • Comping piano
          • 3rd chorus: **** singing
          • 4th chorus: Improv in piano
          • 5th Chorus: Armstrong improv
            • Homophonic 4 bar chord
        • Alligator Crawl (1927)
          • 12 bar blues in F major
          • Trumpet cadenza in C maj
          • Chorus 1 - Clarinet lead
            • Frequent ornaments
          • Chorus 2 - Ensemble polyphony
            • Clarinet counter melody
            • Trombone and trumpet interjections
          • Transition - 4 bars
            • Pedal on G with octave leaps
          • 3 solos in C major
            • ABA form
            • Syncopated trumpet
            • Harsh vibrato
            • Wide leaping melody
          • Return to F major
            • Chorus 3 - Guitar solo
              • Unusual melody
              • Takes own rhythm
              • Frequent speed ups
            • Chorus 4 - Ensemble in double time
          • Use of **** singing
          • Heavily swung
      • Duke Ellington
        • Take the A-Train (1941)
          • Swing
          • 32 bar A-A-B-A
            • Piano intro, coda & key change
            • Apperas 3 times
          • Main I and II chords
            • 9ths and 2nd inversion
          • 4 bar piano intro
            • Arpeggios
            • E-Eb-C-A
            • ic & VIIc
            • Dissonant - b3 with C
          • First A-A-B-A
            • Unison sax
            • Call and response
              • Trombone and trumpet
            • B section: Added fills
          • Second A-A-B-A
            • Trumpets 1-3 tacet
              • Trumpet 4 improv
            • Scalic counter rmelody in C
              • Blues notes
          • 4 bar transition
            • Eb key change
          • Third A-A-B-A
            • 2nd variation in Eb
          • Coda
            • Trumpet improv
            • Dominant pedal
            • Final Eb maj
    • Styles
      • 1910
        • Blues
          • Blue notes b3, b7 and b5
          • Minor feel over major harmony
          • Set chords - 12 bar blues
            • I, IV, V
          • Bends and slides
        • Ragtime
          • LH stride pattern
          • RH syncopation
          • 16 bar sections from classical dances
          • Diminished 7th chord use
          • Short tags as intros
          • No blues notes
      • 1920
        • Dixieland/ Trad Jazz
          • Front line of brass/clarinets
          • Tuba generally plays bass
          • Collective improvisation
          • Polyphonic
          • Improvisation in melodies
          • Often follows 12 bar blues pattern
          • More complex chords
          • Louis Armstrong
      • 1930
        • Swing
          • More solo improvisation
          • Use of string bass
          • More guitar usage
          • Sax becomes predominant
          • More emphasis on off beat
          • Typical swung rhythms
          • Duke Ellington
        • Big Band
          • Much larger arrangements
            • 5 sax, 4 trumpet, 5 trombone and rhythm section
          • Commonly supported singers
          • Deliberate orchestrated gaps for soloist
          • Woody Herman Band
      • 1940
        • Be-bop
          • Fast tempo
          • Complex harmony
          • Numerous key changes
          • Intricate melodies, phrasing and syncopation
          • Rhythm section has major role
          • Head and solos
          • Charlie Parker
        • Cool Jazz
          • Laid Back
            • Slower tempos
          • Soft dynamics
          • Brush drums
          • Miles Davis
    • Classical Influence
      • George Gershwin "Rhapsody in Blue" (1924)
        • 32 bar chorus pattern: AABA
        • Frequent key changes used
          • Bb to Eb to Ab to Db to Gb then A maj (bar 25)
          • Used 9 key signatures by bar 72
        • Frequent imitation like jazz call and response
        • Blues scale used (b7 and b3)
        • Sforzando dynamics
        • Common use of triplets and syncopation
          • Also uses cross rhythms
        • Flutter tonguing (Vaudeville)
        • Ragtime and Cuban clave rhythms
        • Vernacular instruments
          • Accordion
          • Banjo
      • Darius Milhaud "Creation Du La Monde" (1922)
        • Harmony is primarily improvised (early jazz)
        • Frequent syncopation
          • Offbeat high horns
        • Improvised section uses triplets - Ragtime
        • Canonic 4's and 2's (Trad Jazz)
        • Improvised melodies are disjunct
          • Uses large intervals
          • Blues notes are frequent
      • Aaron Copland "Music for the Theatre"  (1925)
        • Lower instruments use dissonance
          • Blues notes used
        • Piano plays 2 semitonal chords in triplets
        • Scalic motifs - trad blues
        • Canonic polyphonic texture
        • Ground bass and walking bass used
        • 2nd triplet accented
        • Strongly polyrhythmic - Dixieland
        • Quintuplet motif in strings

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