Biology GCSE paper 1


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  • Created by: mary
  • Created on: 05-04-18 11:35
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  • Biology paper 1
    • Cells
      • Eucaryotes
        • cell membrane
          • Controls what goes in and out
        • Cell wall
          • Structure
        • Vacuole
          • storage bubble
        • Cytoplasm
          • Reactions take place
        • Ribosomes
          • Protein synthesis
        • Chloroplasts
          • photosynthesis
        • Mitocondria
          • energy  produced
        • Nucleus
      • Prokaryotes
        • Cell membrame
          • Controls what goes in and out
        • Cytoplasm
          • Reactions take place
        • chromosome
          • DNA not in nuclues
        • Flagella
          • motion
        • Ribosomes
          • Protei synthesis
        • Cells, tissues and organs
          • organ system
            • Groups of organs working together
          • tissue
            • One type of cells carrying out a function together
          • organ
            • Lots of types of cells carrying out a function
      • There is many types of cell
        • Differentiated and specialised
          • Nerve
            • Long travel long distance
          • Sperm
          • Muscle
            • Can stretch and contract
          • Leaf
            • Tall for structure
          • Skin
          • Gut
            • Has villi for surface area
          • Start the same but genes get turned off so it grows into a different cell
          • stem cells
            • Can turn into any other type of cell
              • Grow new cells e.g bones, nerve
              • grow new parts of organs
    • Microsopes
      • Microscopes have progressed
        • Light and electron
    • DNA
      • Long strand of double helix structure
        • Further twisted into a chromosome in the nucleus
      • Mitosis
        • One parent cell to 2 identical daughter cells
          • 1. Chromosomes pair up and line up down middle of cell
          • 2. They are pulled apart to each side of the cell
          • 3. new nuclei and membrane forms, now is 2 daughter cells
    • Movement of particles
      • Diffusion
        • High to low concentration (down gradient)
          • seen in cells eg. alveoil in lungs, gas diffuses from bloos (capillary) to lungs (alveoli)
          • Villi in intestines
            • Has thin cell membrane and large surface area
              • seen in cells eg. alveoil in lungs, gas diffuses from bloos (capillary) to lungs (alveoli)
            • Nutrients diffuse into blood
      • Osmosis
        • Movement of water through a partially permeable membrane from area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration
          • Solute cannot move through membrane so water does
      • active transport
        • across a membrane low to high concentraion
          • uses energy
    • Enzymes
      • Lipase
        • fats into glcerol and fatty acids
        • Made in pancreas and small intestine
        • Works in samall intestine
      • protease
        • Breaks down proteins into amino acids
        • made in stomach, pancreas and small intestine
        • Works in stomach and small intestine
      • Amylase
        • works in mouth, small intestine
        • breaks down starch into sugars
        • made in pancreas, salivary galands and small intestine
      • work in lock and key mechanism
        • specifically shaped active site and only one substrate fits inside
      • are not affected by the reaction

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