Biology: B2 - Cell Division Combined Science AQA

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  • Created by: AlyssaW
  • Created on: 03-05-18 09:15
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  • Biology: B2 - Cell Division
    • Cell Division
      • In body cells, chromosomes are found in pairs.
      • Body cells divide in a series of stages called the cell cycle.
        • During the cell cycle, the genetic material is doubled. It then divides into two identical nuclei in a process called mitosis.
          • Before a cell can divide, it needs to grow, replicate the DNA to form two copies of each chromosome and increase the number of sub-cellular structures.
            • Finally, the cytoplasm and cell membranes divide to form two identical cells.
      • Mitotic cell division is important in the growth, repair and development of multicellular organisms.
    • Growth and differentiation
      • In plant cells, mitosis takes place throughout life in the meristems found in the shoot and root tips.
      • Many types of plants cells retain the ability to differentiate throughout life.
      • Most types of an animal cell differentiate at an early stage of development.
    • Stem Cells
      • Embryonic stem cells (from human embryos) and adult stem cells (from adult bone marrow) can be cloned and made to differentiate into many different types of cell.
      • Treatment with stem cells may be able to help conditions such as paralysis and diabetes.
      • Stem cells from plant meristems are used to produce new plant clones quickly and economically for research, horticulture and agriculture.
    • Stem Cell DIlemmas
      • Treatment with stem cells, from embryos and adult cell cloning may be able to help conditions such as diabetes.
      • In therapeutic cloning, an embryo is produced with the same genes as the patient so the stem cells produced are not rejected and may be used for medical treatment.
      • The use of stem cells has some potential risks and some people have ethical and religious objections.

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