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Biology 2




Unit 1

Life and cell

Human and animal cells

Nucleus-genetic material control the activities of the cell
Cytoplasm-were most the chemical reactions take place
Cell membrane- holds cell together and controls what goes in and out
Mitochondria-reactions for respiration take place
Ribosome's-where proteins are made in the cell…

Page 2

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Biology 2




Surface area- more space equal more faster to get to the other side

Osmosis

Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region
of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration

Osmosis is a type of diffusion that allows…

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Biology 2




Monoculture which a plants grown in the same field year after year

The same plants need the same mineral which can be used up by other plants leaving none for the
others

One deficiencies causes a poor growth and reduces the plants

The carbon cycle

1. The whole…

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Biology 2




Movement-the muscles contract therefore needed more energy
Keeping the body temperature- body produces heat eventually losing it to the surrounding
so the body need to constantly keep producing heat as it important

Decay

Decomposers are a group of microorganism which include bacteria and fungi which feed on
dead…

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Biology 2




Biological catalysts-Enzymes

Body reactions known by enzymes
Special chemical are known as catalyst
Enzymes are large proteins made from long amino acids
Enzymes are protein catalyst that speed up chemical reactions
Catalyst increases the speed of reaction and are not changed by
the reaction or used up but…

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Biology 2




Product water oxygen

Enzymes products
Breaking it
Down


Respiration involves many reactions which are catalysed by enzymes
As respiration releases the energy that the cell needs to do just about everything
Respiration is a process of releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose and goes on in
every…

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Biology 2




Bile neutralises the stomach acid and emulsifies which made from liver, stored in gall bladder and
released into small intestine. Stomach has hydrochloric acid which bile neutralises to make conditions
alkaline which the enzymes work best at.

Emulsifies fat which mean breaks the fat into tiny droplets

Digestive…

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Biology 2




Disadvantages

Develop allergies
Enzymes can be denatured by even a small increase in temperature
Contamination with other enzymes

Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the maintance of a constant internal environment
Six main things need to be controlled
Body temperature
Water content
Ion content
Blood sugar
Waste products
Carbon dioxide
Urea…

Page 9

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Biology 2




Proteins cannot be stored so excess amino acids are converted into fats and carbohydrates. This
process occurs in the liver. Urea is produced as waste product. Urea is poisonous. Released in the
blood stream. The kidneys then filter it out of the blood and excrete from the body…

Page 10

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Biology 2




Diabetic can check their blood sugar using a glucose-monitoring device. They prick their finger to get
a drop of blood for the machine to check.

Insulin and diabetes

Insulin was discovered by Banting and Best

Banting and best experiment

1. In 1920 Banting and best managed to successfully…

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