Biological Therapies for Phobia's

A summary, including A02/3 of Biological Therapies for Phobia's.

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  • Biological Therapies for Phobia's...
    • Chemotherapy (Drugs)
      • Benzodiazepines (BZ's)
        • Enhances Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter to slow nerve cell activity. increases chloride ion flow so receptors are harder to stimulate, so feel more relaxed
        • Highly addictive.
        • KAHN ET AL; BZ's are more effective than a placebo.
        • HILDAGO ET AL; BZ's are more effective than anti-depressants.
      • Beta-Blockers
        • Reduces adrenaline and noradrenaline. bind to receptors in cells so lowers blood pressure so feel more relaxed.
        • effective anxiety control, however still same results with a placebo
        • TURNER ET AL; no difference in Beta-Blockers and placebo in heart rate and feeling nervous.
        • LIEBOWITZ ET AL; effective anxiety control.
        • KINDT ET AL; can block out painful memories.
      • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI's)
        • Leaves serotonin in synapse for longer so more effective.
        • AOUIZERATE; 50-80% found relief for those with social phobia's.
        • SSRI's have fewer side effects than Benzodiazepine.
        • KATZELNICK ET AL; improved levels of self rated anxiety with SSRI's
      • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI's).
        • Blocks monoamine oxidase action, a chemical which breaks down noradrenaline and serotonin, so the person feels calmer.
        • more effective than a placebo.
        • more effective than Beta-Blockers.
        • Side effects can include dizziness, insomnia, drowsiness and blurred vision.
    • Surgery
      • Capsulotomy and Deep Brain Stimulus. Surgical Intervention in the area of the brain that is malfunctioning. connections are severed to relieve psychological symptoms.
      • Unethical, dangerous and harmful.
      • Questionable as to if it works.
      • RUCK ET AL; studied 26 patients and found success after Capsulotomy but 7 tried to commit suicide.
      • Addiction
      • Side Effects
      • Only treating symptoms
      • Unethical in withholding treatment in placebo conditions
      • Eliminating one set of symptoms can cause others to appear.
      • VILET ET AL & GOULD ET AL; combined approach with psychological therapies would be best.
      • Withdrawal symptoms when they have to stop takin the drugs as risk of addiction.
      • Short term effects.


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