Biology (B7) - General Revision

Doesn't go into detail about ecosystems or genetic modification, but has eveything else

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 11-06-13 16:59
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  • Biology (B7)
    • Control
      • Controlling body temperature
        • 37'C is ideal
        • Temperature receptors
          • Hypothalmus triggers effectors
            • Effectors respond and counteract change
              • Too cold...
                • Blood vessels close to skin get smaller (vasoconstriction) Less blood gets to skin surface, stops blood losing heat to surroundings.
                  • Shivering happens when muscles contract rapidly. Increases rate of respiration and warms tissue surrounding muscles.
              • Too hot...
                • Blood vessels close to skin get bigger (vasodilation)  More blood gets to skin surface. Warm blood loses more heat to surroundings.
                  • Sweat glands produce more sweat. Water in sweat evaporates, cooling body. If you're dehydrated you produce less sweat, so body temp increases.
      • Controlled blood sugar
        • Diabetes Type 1
          • Happens when the pancreas stops producing insulin. This leads to high blood pressure.It's controlled by insulin injections at mealtimes. Dosage is very important.
        • Simple sugars cause blood sugar level to rise rapidly
          • Pancreas releases insulin
            • Sugar is removed from the blood
              • Blood sugar levels fall
        • Diabetes Type 2
          • Late onset diabetes. Is caused by poor diet or being obese increases risk. Body no longer responds to its own insulin. Blood pressure rises as a result. It is controlled by a careful diet and controlled exercise.
            • High in fibre foods and complex carbohydrate help type 2. Blood sugar level rises slowly.
    • Human Body
      • Exercise
        • Injury
          • Sprains
            • When a ligament has been stretched too much. Causes damage and pain. requires RICE treatment.
          • Torn Ligaments
            • When the ligament tears, Will lead to loss of control of joint because bones are no longer attached properly.
          • Torn Tendons
            • A tear in the tendons that attaches muscle to it's bone. When a muscle contracts one way, but is being pulled in a different direction.
          • Dislocations
            • When a bone comes out of its socket. It causes severe pain.
        • Increases Fitness
          • Heart rate a blood pressure increase during exercise
          • Time for heart rate to get back to normal is called the 'recovery period'
          • BMI = Body Mass (kg) / Height" (m")
          • Proportion of body fat (%). As fitness increases, percentage lowers
        • Background Information Required...
          • Health Problems
            • E.g. high blood pressure
          • Lifestyle Factors
            • Cut down on smoking or drinking
          • Family History
            • Illness can be hereditary. Important to know
          • Current Medication
            • Medication may affect ability
          • Physical Activity
            • Ensure course is challenging
          • Fitness Treatments
            • Know what has or hasn't worked before
      • Skeleton
        • Supports body and allows movement
          • Bones and muscles are attached by tendons. Muscles move bones at joints by contracting.
            • Tendons don't stretch a lot, so contracting muscles pull on the tendons and bend the bone.
              • Muscles work in antagonistic pairs.
      • Blood
        • Fluid made up of...
          • White Blood Cells
            • Fights infection by protecting body against attack from micro-organisms.
          • Plasma
            • Carries nutrients (glucose and amino acids), antibodies, hormones and waste (CO2 and urea).
          • Platelets
            • Small fragments of cells that clot the blood at site of a wound.
          • Red Blood Cells
            • Transport oxygen. No nucleus. Packed with haemoglobin which binds with oxygen. Biconcave shape for a larger surface area.
        • Double Circulatory System... The first pumps de oxygenated blood to the lungs. The second pumps oxygenated blood to body and then back to the lungs.
      • Chemical Exchange
        • Chemicals diffuse through partially permeable membrane
    • Technology
      • Industrial use of micro-organisms
        • Products
          • Antibiotics
          • Food
            • From fungi
          • Biofuels
            • Yeast = ethanol
            • Micro-organisms = biogas
          • Enzymes
            • Washing powder
            • Making food
    • Ecosystems
      • Closed-loop system
        • There are no outputs or inputs.
          • Photosynthesis and Respiration: oxygen and CO2 reused.
          • No ecosystem is perfect because some outputs are always lost.
      • Open-loop system
        • There are outputs and inputs.
  • What Happens?!?!

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