Biochemistry summary

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  • Biochemistry
    • Carbohdrates
      • Monosaccharides
        • small organic molecules
        • building blocks
        • CH2O
        • ring structures in water
      • Disaccharides
        • 2 monosaccharides, glycosidic bond, elimination of water
          • condensation
          • glucose + glucose = MALTOSE
          • glucose + fructose = SUCROSE
          • glucose + galactose = LACTOSE
      • Polysaccharides
        • polymers
        • glycosidic bonds
        • starch
          • AMYLOSE
            • linear
          • AMYLOPECTIN
            • branched
    • Lipids
      • non polar, insoluble in water
      • glycerol + fatty acids = TRIGLYCERIDES by condensation
        • water removed
          • oxygen bond (ESTER) formed b/w glycerol + fatty acid
        • saturated /unsaturated fatty acid
      • functions
        • energy store
        • protection
        • insulation
        • waterproofing
      • Phospholipids
        • lipid: non polar, insoluble
          • HYDROPHOBIC
        • phosphate group: polar, soluble
          • HYDROPHILIC
    • Proteins
      • + nitrogen
      • built of amino acids
      • -NH2 plus -COOH
      • Peptide bond
        • amino group + carboxyl group (of another amino acid) with elimination of water
      • structure
        • Primary
          • amino acids in polypeptide chain
        • Secondary
          • result of HYDROGEN bonding
            • ALPHA HELIX
        • Tertiary
          • bending of polypeptide helix = compact = 3D
            • DISULPHIDE, IONIC, HYDROGEN BONDS
        • Quaternary
          • from 2+ polypeptide chains in tertiary
      • classification
        • Fibrous
          • parallel chains/sheets, w/ cross linkages = long fibres
          • insoluble, strong, tough
        • Globular
          • spherical
          • soluble
      • inorganic ions
        • Macronutrients
          • magnesium, iron, phosphate, calcium
        • Micronutrients
    • Water
      • transparent
        • light to pass =photosynthesis
      • medium for metabolic reactions
      • polar
        • oxygen end -
        • hydrogen end +
      • high specific and latent heat
      • max density 4 degreesC

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