Unit 2 Module 1: Biological Molecules

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UNIT 2 BIOLOGY MODULES 1 + 2 + 3 NOTES 2013-4
Module 1: BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES (biochemistry)
o All living organisms are composed of biological molecules that may be synthesised.
o All biological molecules are under carbohydrates, proteins, lipids (fats), nucleic acid (DNA) & H2O
o Carbohydrates : C, O, H…

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UNIT 2 BIOLOGY MODULES 1 + 2 + 3 NOTES 2013-4


H-BONDS

o weak
o slightly -vely charged ( -
) atom comes into contact w/
slightly +vely ()charged H atom, H-bond formed
+

o stabilises structures e.g. enzyme, DNA

PROPERTIES OF H2O

a) SURFACE TENSION
o Due to H-bonds,…

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UNIT 2 BIOLOGY MODULES 1 + 2 + 3 NOTES 2013-4


SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY (thermal stability)
o Has a v large one absorbs lots of heat energy before temp greatly. (or temp )
o bodies = composed greatly of H2O (70-80%) so w/ shc, can be v thermostable less prone…

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UNIT 2 BIOLOGY MODULES 1 + 2 + 3 NOTES 2013-4

TRANSPARENCY
o water allows visible light through it
means that photosynthesis & associated food chains = possible in quite shallow aquatic
environments



VOLALITY/STABILITY
o Balanced at Earth's temp.s so H2O cycle of evaporation, transpiration & precipitation is maintained




WATER…

Page 5

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UNIT 2 BIOLOGY MODULES 1 + 2 + 3 NOTES 2013-4
metabolic processes take part in H2O; free to move around and react with each other

High latent heat of vaporisation

o lhv definition: amount of energy required to change a given quantity of liquid into gas
o Large as…

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UNIT 2 BIOLOGY MODULES 1 + 2 + 3 NOTES 2013-4
Hydrophobic interaction

o Non-polar mol (e.g. lipids, cellulose and starch) don't in H2O and if surrounded by H2O as H2O molecules
are attached to each other. Is important in hydrophobic interactions in proteins & phospholipid bilayers s
stability of…

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UNIT 2 BIOLOGY MODULES 1 + 2 + 3 NOTES 2013-4
Glucose: 2 isomers
glucose (= beta)
glucose (= alpha)
Disaccharides:
2 monosaccharides disaccharide ( + H2O)



forms covalent bond called glycosidic bond

Examples:

1. maltose glucose and glucose
2. sucrose glucose and fructose
3. lactose glucose and galactose
C12H22O11…

Page 8

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UNIT 2 BIOLOGY MODULES 1 + 2 + 3 NOTES 2013-4
sucrase = sucrose glucose & fructose
lactase = lactose glucose & galactose
amylase = amylose from starch

Glycogen

similar to amylopectin BUT shorter chain
lots of branching
1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds
granular (granules)
-glucose



Cellulose

-glucose
1,4 glycosidic…

Page 9

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UNIT 2 BIOLOGY MODULES 1 + 2 + 3 NOTES 2013-4




SUMMARY OF CARBOHYDRATES

Starch

o -glucose
o 1,4 links (amylose) + 1,4 & 1,6 links (amylopectin)
o amylose coiled, unbranched
o amylopectin long branched chains, some coiling
o in plants
o function: carbohydrate energy store
o general structure =…

Page 10

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UNIT 2 BIOLOGY MODULES 1 + 2 + 3 NOTES 2013-4




= supports/strength for cell & whole plant

= has H2O channels to allow H2O to pass

= plant cells don't burst become turgid gives even more support to plant

= e.g.) guard cells NOT spongy mesophyll palisade cell

changes…

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