B7- genetic modification

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • B7 Genetic modification
    • Genes can be transferred between organisms
      • Genetic modification is where a gene from one organism is transferred to another
      • The organism with the transferred gene will then produce a protein using instructions in that gene
      • Protein can be made even though the gene came from another organism because all organisms use the same genetic code
    • Genetic modification involves important stages
      • 1.) the gene that is responsible for the desirable protein is isolated
      • 2.)The useful gene is replicated to create lots of copies
      • 3.)Each gene is joined to a vector- a carrier for the gene which makes it easier to insert into a  new cell
        • Plasmids and viruses are often used as vectors
      • 4.) Vectors containing the useful genes are transferred into new cells e.g. bacterial cells
      • 5.) Not all of the new cells will be modified e.g. the vector might not have been transferred properly
      • 6.) So, the last stage is to select the individuals that have been successfully modified
    • Genetic modification has useful applications for humans
      • Making medicines
        • Genetically modified bacteria make medicines cheaply, quickly and in large quantities
        • Insulin is used to treat type 1 diabetes
        • The gene for human insulin production can be transferred into bacteria
        • The bacteria are grown in a fermenter, and the human insulin is simply extracted when it's produced
        • This means that the insulin made by the bacteria is exactly the same as human insulin
      • Making crops herbicide resistant
        • Some plants have natural resistance to herbicides
        • Can cut out the gene responsible and stick it to any other plant we want to
        • Herbicide resistant crops are useful to farmers because they can use a really effective weed killer without damaiging their produce
        • Herbicide resistant crops can be more expensive than normal crops
          • Some people are worried that the gene might be transferred into wild plants, making them hard to kill
        • Herbicide resistant crops could encourage the use of weedkillers. This could reduce biodiversity, and it's possible the weed killers could pollute water systems or get into foodchains


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Genetic modification resources »