b1.7 genetic variation and its control

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  • b1.7 genetic variation and its control
    • variation is the term used to describe the differences between organisms of the same species
    • key words
      • DNA is the name given where there are several versions of a gene
      • chromosomes are the x-shaped things that carry genetic information
      • Gene is a section of DNA. they determine some of our charecteristics
      • the nucleus is where the genetic information is found in a cell
      • Allele is the double helix which chromosomes are made
    • reproduction
      • sexual reproduction
        • when two parents are needed to produce offspring
        • Sexual reproduction produces offspring that resemble their parents, but are not identical to them
        • fusion of gametes - fertilization
      • asexual reproduction
        • when offspring are produced from only one parent
        •  Asexual reproduction produces offspring - clones - which are genetically identical to their parents
        • no fusion of gametes
    • plant cloning
      • clones are genetically identical individuals. many organisms produce clones by asexual reproduction
        • cloning can be useful for producing many copies of an organism with desirable characteristics
          • plant cloning techniques include taking cuttings and tissue culture
    • animal cloning
      • the main steps are Removing the nucleus from an egg cell
        • Putting the nucleus from an udder cell into the egg cell
          • Giving the egg cell an electric shock to make it divide
            • Implanting the embryo into a surrogate mother sheep (does not need to be related)
              • The embryo will then grow into a clone of the sheep that supplied the udder cell
    • genetic modification - this term is applied to organisms that have been genetically engineered
    • genetic engineering the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material


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