Development (Defining and measuring) AQA Paper 2 Sociology Global Development

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  • Development
    • The process by which societies change.
    • Development can affect a range of aspects of social life.
      • Education
      • Health
      • Democracy
      • Human Rights
      • Gender Equality
      • Well-being
      • Sustainability
    • Economic well being
      • Normally measured by Gross National Income (GNI)
        • Measures the total value of goods and services produced by an economy in a year.(Per Capita)
          • Changes in GNI per year indicate states of economic growth.
      • Sociologist however are often cautious due to:
        • Does not cover all aspects of SOCIAL development. A rise in GNI does not necessarily mean a climb in health and education for all.
        • It is an average for a whole population, does not garantee high standard of living for all.
        • Only accounts for the 'official' economy, e.g growing food for ones own consumption or many people in the informal sector of work.
        • Continuous economic development is very unlikely to be sustainable, such as increased crime rates and environmental degradation.
    • Social Development
      • Education (Attendance, literacy rates etc.)
      • Health (Child mortality rates etc.)
      • Democracy (e.g. free and fair elections)
      • Gender equality (differences between males and females in education etc.)
    • Human Development Index (HDI)
      • Measures both human and economic factors.
        • Material standard of living (GNI)
        • Education (mean gross years of schooling)
        • Health (Life expectancy)


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