Key Approaches

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  • Created by: Jellie56
  • Created on: 09-05-13 17:59
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  • Approaches
    • Biological
      • Assumptions
        • Behavioural continuity between species
        • We are innate - inborn
        • Behaviour is inherited and determined by our genes
        • Behaviour has evolved and genes that help us to survive will be passed on
      • Research
        • Surgery and brain scans
        • Twin studies
        • Experiments to test the effect of drugs
      • Strengths
        • Methods are highly scientific
        • Has useful applications e.g. drug therapy
      • Weaknesses
        • Problems with generalising findings from animal experiments
        • Suggests that people don't have free will
    • Behaviourist
      • Assumptions
        • Believe in parsimony
        • Only believe in studying overt behaviour
        • Behaviour is learned through classical conditioning
        • Believe in biological continuity
      • Research
        • Laboratory experiments with animals
        • Laboratory experiments
        • Observation
      • Strengths
        • Many therapies have been derived e,g, token economy
        • Uses highly controlled scientific methods
      • Weaknesses
        • Deterministic - behaviour is only determined by our environment
        • Problems with generalising findings from animal experiments
    • Social Learning Theory
      • Assumptions
        • Identification - desire to be like someone, so there is a desire to imitate them
        • Vicarios reinforcement - through observations of the consequences of others actions
        • Observational learning - attention, retention, motor production, motivation
        • Behaviour is learned through observation and imitation
      • Research
        • Observations
        • Laboratory experiments
      • Strengths
        • Explains the learning of complex human behaviours e.g. aggression
        • Considers mental processing (mediating cognitive factors)
      • Weaknesses
        • Not all behaviours learned by obsrevation can be copied
        • Doesn't explain individual differences
    • Cognitive
      • Assumptions
        • Human mind is comapred to a computer
        • Events within a person need to be studied in order to fully understand behaviour
        • Humans actively process information
        • Concerned with how thinking shapes behaviour
      • Research
        • Case studies
        • Scans
        • Laboratory experiments
      • Strengths
        • Successful therapies have been developed e.g. for depression
        • Considers the role of thinking in behaviour
      • Weaknesses
        • Shows how cognitive processes happen, but ignores why
        • Likens human processing to machines which is simplistic and reductionist
    • Humanistic
      • Assumptions
        • Therapy - client centred, holistic, empathetic
        • Behaviour is motivated by hierachy of needs
        • Emphasis is on the self, psychological problems are from differences between the ideal self and percieved self
        • People have free will to choose how to behave
      • Research
        • Observations
        • Case studies
      • Strengths
        • Client-centred therapy is effective for minor problems and has lead to the growth of counselling
        • A person is responsible for their own behaviour
      • Weaknesses
        • Unscientific as it rejects scientific methods and principles
        • Focuses on the individual so generalisations can't be made to all human behaviour
    • Psychodynamic
      • Assumptions
        • Defence mechanisms protect our conscious from unpleasant events
        • Personality has 3 parts - id, ego and superego
        • Development takes place in the psychosexual stages, but we can get fixated at stages if the conflict is not resolved
        • Early childhood experiences influence adult behaviour and personality
      • Research
        • Case studies
      • Strengths
        • Freud recognised the importance of childhood experience for later life
        • Psychoanalysis methods are still used in psychiatry today
      • Weaknesses
        • The use of case studies lacks generalisability
        • It is unfalsifiable so also unscientific

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