apoptosis (cell death)

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  • apoptosis (cell death)
    • necrosis
      • accidental death following trauma
      • cells swell and burst
      • contents release and cause inflammation
      • trauma, lack of blood
    • programmed cell death
      • apoptosis
      • cells die in organised manner, are engulfed and digested
      • requires ATP
      • no inflammation
    • why need
      • proper development
        • lose webbing as embryo
        • lose tail as tadpole
      • proper function
        • to form synapses, surplus cells need to die
      • destroy cells that are a threat
        • cells infected with viruses/bacteria/parasites
        • cancer
        • DNA damaged
        • cytotoxic T cells can induce in other cells
    • Features
      • falling off
      • shrinkage of cell and nucleus
      • cleavage of nuclear proteins
      • condensation of chromatin
      • nucleus fragmentation
      • cleavage of cytoskeleton
      • require ATP
    • caspase cascade
      • capases are cell death proteases
      • synthsised as inactive pro-capases
      • activated by each other (cleavage)
      • initiator capase activate a cascade generating lots of effector capases
      • cleave cellular components
    • Intrinsic pathway
      • damage or stress
      • damaged mitochondria release electron carrier cytochrome c
      • cytochrome c in the cytoplasm activates initiator caspase
      • initiar caspase causes a cascade
    • Extrinsic pathway
      • proteins from other cells bind to death receptors
      • death receptors aggregate and cause caspase to be cleaved
      • activates cascade


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