Psychology Revision - Animal Behaviour (comaprative psychology)

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  • Animal Behaviour
    • Lorenz (1935)
      • took a large clutch of goose eggs, half placed with the mother, half with him
      • Lorenz imitated a quacking sound, the birds regarded him as their mother
      • goslings followed the first moving object they saw
        • 12-17 hour CRITICAL PERIOD
          • after 32 hours - unlikely to ever develop attachment
        • Process known as IMPRINTING
          • suggests attachment is innate and programmed genetically
      • put the gosling under an upturned box + allowed them to mix
        • all separated back to Lorenz and mother
    • Harlow and Harlow (1965)
      • Infant monkeys reared in isolaton
        • took baby monkeys and isolated them from birth
        • some for 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months
        • resulted in bizarre behaviour
          • clutching their own bodies, rocking compulsively
          • became aggressive
          • unable to socialise with other monkeys
      • Infant monkeys reared with surrogate mothers
        • 8 monkeys separated from their mothers immediately after birth and placed in cages
        • given access to two surrogate mothers, wire and cloth
        • studied for 165 days
        • all spent more time with cloth mother, gave the sense of safety and protection
        • results
          • didn't know how to act around other monkeys
          • difficulty with mating
          • inadequate mothers
    • Advantages
      • ability to advance or understanding of humans
        • medical + scientific research
        • example - Harlow lead to Bowlby's study which advanced or understanding of attachment
      • animals can be used when humans would not be permitted
      • laws in place to protect animals
      • for the greater good - end justifies the reasons for using animals
      • humans can be compared to animals
        • humans evolved from animals
      • reduction, replacement, refinement
        • protects animals + makes research more ethical
    • Disadvantage
      • cannot give informed consent
      • research from animals cannot always be directly transferred to humans
      • hard to carry out experiments in their natural environment
        • results wont be valid
      • unethical research is often carried out
    • Ethical Issues
      • argument of speciesism, humans should not be elevated above animals
      • research is often repetitive + answer is self-evident
      • animals have the right to be treated with respect
      • animals cannot provide consent
      • causes emotional harm and unnatural behaviours carried out though their life
      • animals are capable of emotion as they are so similar to humans


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