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AGGRESSION…read more

Slide 2

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Aggression: intentional behaviour to inflict some form of harm
upon others
Displacement: shifting true feelings from original source to a less
harmful/ non threatening target
Sublimation: transferring socially unacceptable impulses/
idealizations into socially acceptable actions or behaviour…read more

Slide 3

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Hormones (testosterone):
· Having an extra Y
This is why men are stereotypically chromosome can The Limbic System:
more aggressive than women due increase aggression · The limbic system is a part of the CNS in
to having higher testosterone levels. · There is a higher than the brain. The amygdala is a part of the
normal proportion of system
This is supported by research that men with XYY amongst · The limbic system influences things like
found violent criminals had higher violent criminals eating and sexual behaviour and
levels of testosterone than non- Genetics: aggression
violent criminals · Some may inherit · Injuries to the limbic system can
This is also supported by Young's genes that make them increase aggression
study with monkeys naturally more · This is supported by cases of Charles
aggressive Whitman (murderer who had tumour
Evaluation Points: pressing on limbic system) & Phineas
· There is evidence that shows a correlation Gage (frontal lobe damaged in accident
· Supported by Raine & Young BUT done w/ animals so may not be causing him to become aggressive)
correct representation · Also supported by Raine
· Says we have no choice in our behaviour- deterministic
· Ignores childhood experience- reductionist…read more

Slide 4

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Raine (2000): Young et al (1959):
A: to see if there differences in the brains of A: to see how testosterone affects pregnant
criminals and non- criminals monkeys & their offspring
P: 41 criminals matched with non-offenders with P: Pregnant monkeys injected w/ testosterone
same mental condition as them. Taken off meds then observed
and took a PET scan F: The offspring of injected monkeys were more
F: Activity in pre-frontal cortex was lower in C: This shows that testosterone can increases
criminals and this is where behaviour is controlled aggression in monkeys.
C: Abnormalities in the brain can cause
aggressive behaviour Evaluation:
Can't be generalised to humans
Unethical…read more

Slide 5

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Drugs: Psychosurgery:
E.g. a drug called Ritalin, which stimulates activity Involves either removing or destroying the part of the
in the prefrontal cortex, reduces aggressive brain that isn't functioning properly. May be done by
behaviour caused by conditions like ADHD.
inserting and heating probe to a precise location and
heating up the end to kill the nerves. Psychosurgery
on the amygdala has reduced aggressive behaviour in
Evaluation Points: violent people
Easy to produce in large quantities and easily
Highly effective Evaluation Points:
Quicker working than counselling Permanent solution
Short term solution so not dealing with problem Person can die
People can become dependent/ addicted
Unethical as person may not be in the right state of
Body can stop responding to drug mind to give consent
Surgery can go wrong causing permanent brain
damage or making things worse…read more

Slide 6

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Humans are born with Thanatos which Evaluation Points:
is the instinct to self destruct which
then becomes an aggressive instinct. Supported by Barker's study=
The id causes us to want to express frustrated kids were more aggressive
these aggressive desires. The ego tries Disproved by Arms' study= those
to control them by using defence watching wrestling were more
mechanisms. Frustration can also act as aggressive than those watching
a trigger to aggression. swimming
No way to test if Thanatos, id and ego
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: exist
Thanatos builds up inside us as an aggressive instinct as a result
of frustration. Frustration can act as a trigger to release this build Theory is untestable as involves
up and then leading to aggression. unconscious mind…read more

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