Reign of Alexander 3 1884-1917 Russia

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  • Created by: Joanna S
  • Created on: 23-12-13 14:37
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  • Alexander 3 1881-1894
    • Problems in 1881
      • Crisis from Alexander 2 assasination
        • Alexander 3 was conservative and didn't agree with his father's reforms
          • He began to take the reforms back by placing restrictions
            • This stopped modernisation and development
      • Trying to rule a huge multicultural country
      • Split in oppinions on how to country should be ran
        • Westerners wanted the Tsar to stay in power but have a parliment
        • Slavophils wanted the Tsar to rule in an absolute autocracy
          • They believed that a strong autocracy held the empire together
      • Opposition (mainly People's Will)
        • Wanted the Tsar gone
        • Killed Royals
          • Famous for assassination of Alexander 2
    • Repression and Reaction
      • Political repression
        • Political opponents were put on trial without the jury
        • Some areas of Russia e.g. Poland wanted to establish their own state
          • People wanted the power to be handed to them
        • People wanted to change the political system
          • Alexander 3 repressed them
            • However, political opponents like People's Will still existed
              • E.g. Lenin's brother was killed for an attempted assassination in 1887
        • Universities were only for the very wealthy and came under state control in 1884
        • Press freedom was restricted by censorship once again
          • Newspapers were banned in 1882-89
          • Books were censored by the Okhrana to prevent widespread of radical ideas
        • Melikov and Ignatiev (liberal ministers) were replaced by Pobedonostsev
        • Alexander 3 1881-1894
          • Problems in 1881
            • Crisis from Alexander 2 assasination
              • Alexander 3 was conservative and didn't agree with his father's reforms
                • He began to take the reforms back by placing restrictions
                  • This stopped modernisation and development
            • Trying to rule a huge multicultural country
            • Split in oppinions on how to country should be ran
              • Westerners wanted the Tsar to stay in power but have a parliment
              • Slavophils wanted the Tsar to rule in an absolute autocracy
                • They believed that a strong autocracy held the empire together
            • Opposition (mainly People's Will)
              • Wanted the Tsar gone
              • Killed Royals
                • Famous for assassination of Alexander 2
          • Repression and Reaction
            • Political repression
              • Political opponents were put on trial without the jury
              • Some areas of Russia e.g. Poland wanted to establish their own state
                • People wanted the power to be handed to them
              • People wanted to change the political system
                • Alexander 3 repressed them
                  • However, political opponents like People's Will still existed
                    • E.g. Lenin's brother was killed for an attempted assassination in 1887
              • Universities were only for the very wealthy and came under state control in 1884
              • Press freedom was restricted by censorship once again
                • Newspapers were banned in 1882-89
                • Books were censored by the Okhrana to prevent widespread of radical ideas
              • Melikov and Ignatiev (liberal ministers) were replaced by Pobedonostsev
            • The Tsar felt threatened because of the other assasinations
              • This put other arristocracts in compromising places
            • Repression Campaign
              • Supported by the upper class and the slavophils
          • Repressive autocratic state
            • No political freedom
              • Censorship
            • Religions and languages were repressed/ banned (Russification)
            • Jews joined radical organisations againast the Tsar
              • Like the Bund (formed in 1895) which later joined the Bolsheviks
            • 1895 Lenin exiled to Siberia along with others
              • Some fled the country
            • Okhrana (Ochrana)
              • repressed political opponents
              • Replaced the Soviet secret police
              • Arrested members of extremist groups that were against the Tsar
            • Peasant population grow rapidly
              • Less land availible
                • Caused famines in 1891-93
          • Russification
            • Russian became the official language
              • All the other languages were banned
            • Other religions were either banned or restricted
            • Jews were the most repressed
              • Pogroms - attacks on Jews were frequent and encouraged by the government
              • Many fled the country in fear
          • Financial Reform
            • Russia was very economically underdeveloped
            • the economy was mostly based on agriculture
              • This again set the country backwards
            • Nikolai Bunge - Finance minister in 1882
              • Peasant land banks allowed loans for peasants
                • This encouraged expansion and new development
              • Reduced taxes for peasants
            • Ivan Vyshnegradsky 1887
              • Famine of 1891
              • Encouraged peasants to farm in Siberia
          • Central Control
            • Pobedonostsev began to undo Alexander 2's reforms
              • He Introduced land captains in 1889
                • Land Captains replaced the local justice system
            • Pobedonostsev put primary school under the Orthodox
              • Peasants were no longer allowed secondary education
            • Doctors and teachers (and other professionals) were not allowed to vote
            • In 1980 local justice became state controlled as the juries were appointed by the government
          • Nicholas 2
            • Tutored by a conservative Pobedonostsev
            • Last tsar of Russia
              • Murdered by the Bolsheviks in 1917
            • Became tasr in 1894
            • He didn't want to rule
              • He had little interest in politics
              • He was seen as "weak" and "soft"
            • People expected him to be more relaxed
              • 1895 Januray, a delegation of zemstva asked for more political power
                • He dismissed the idea as senseless dreams
      • The Tsar felt threatened because of the other assasinations
        • This put other arristocracts in compromising places
      • Repression Campaign
        • Supported by the upper class and the slavophils
    • Repressive autocratic state
      • No political freedom
        • Censorship
      • Religions and languages were repressed/ banned (Russification)
      • Jews joined radical organisations againast the Tsar
        • Like the Bund (formed in 1895) which later joined the Bolsheviks
      • 1895 Lenin exiled to Siberia along with others
        • Some fled the country
      • Okhrana (Ochrana)
        • repressed political opponents
        • Replaced the Soviet secret police
        • Arrested members of extremist groups that were against the Tsar
      • Peasant population grow rapidly
        • Less land availible
          • Caused famines in 1891-93
    • Russification
      • Russian became the official language
        • All the other languages were banned
      • Other religions were either banned or restricted
      • Jews were the most repressed
        • Pogroms - attacks on Jews were frequent and encouraged by the government
        • Many fled the country in fear
    • Financial Reform
      • Russia was very economically underdeveloped
      • the economy was mostly based on agriculture
        • This again set the country backwards
      • Nikolai Bunge - Finance minister in 1882
        • Peasant land banks allowed loans for peasants
          • This encouraged expansion and new development
        • Reduced taxes for peasants
      • Ivan Vyshnegradsky 1887
        • Famine of 1891
        • Encouraged peasants to farm in Siberia
    • Central Control
      • Pobedonostsev began to undo Alexander 2's reforms
        • He Introduced land captains in 1889
          • Land Captains replaced the local justice system
      • Pobedonostsev put primary school under the Orthodox
        • Peasants were no longer allowed secondary education
      • Doctors and teachers (and other professionals) were not allowed to vote
      • In 1980 local justice became state controlled as the juries were appointed by the government
    • Nicholas 2
      • Tutored by a conservative Pobedonostsev
      • Last tsar of Russia
        • Murdered by the Bolsheviks in 1917
      • Became tasr in 1894
      • He didn't want to rule
        • He had little interest in politics
        • He was seen as "weak" and "soft"
      • People expected him to be more relaxed
        • 1895 Januray, a delegation of zemstva asked for more political power
          • He dismissed the idea as senseless dreams
  • Ironically he was on his way to sign a decree which would allow an elected parliament

    Comments

    Neema

    Thank you so much, this is really good. Any resources you would recommend for Tsarist Russia.

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