Unit 3: Atmospheric Pollution - Controls 1

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  • Air Pollution Controls 1
    • General Methods
      • Legislation - regulations that control polluting activities
      • Clean Air Acts (1956) - bans release of excessive smoke (smoke control orders) in urban smokeless zones
      • Montreal Protocol (1987) - reduce CFC use
      • Kyoto Protocol (1997) - reduce greenhouse gas emissions
      • Landfill Tax - taxes waste to encourage recycling and reduce usage
      • Reduce use of energy resources and minderals - reduces extraction and refining emissions
    • Sulphur Oxides
      • Fuel Desulfurisation
        • Hydrogen sulphide removed from natural gas
        • Sulphur compounds removed from crude oil
        • Iron pyrites in coal contain sulphur - removed by crushing, washing and streaming in denser materials
      • Flue Gas Desulfurisation
        • Dry flue gas scrubbing - react flue gas with crushed calcium carbonate
          • Makes gypsum (CaSO4) - building plaster - O2 and CO2
        • Wet flue gas scrubbing - bubbled through sodium sulfite solution (Na2SO3)
          • Makes sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) - heated to reproduce NaHSO3, water and conc. sulphur dioxide = used in industry
    • Methane
      • Reduced landfill use - stops anaerobic decomposition
      • Gas collection in fossil fuel extraction - used as a fuel


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