Aggression

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Aggression
    • Definition
      • Physical or verbal behaviour intended to intentionally cause harm.
      • Excludes intentional actions where pain is unavoidable eg medical treatment.
      • Buss (1961) outlined two broad kinds
        • Social Aggression (Displays of rage)
          • Leads to Hostile Aggression in Humans
        • Silent Aggression
          • Leads to Instrumental Aggression (aims to injure but only as a means to an end)
    • Theories of Aggression
      • Biological theories
        • Instinct Theory
          • Aggression is an adaptive strategy
          • Purposeful aggression increases chance of survival + reproduction
            • McAndrew (2009)
          • But it fails to account for the variations in aggressiveness from culture to culture eg Amish people
            • Horstein (1976)
        • Neural Influences
          • Low levels of serotonin in the brain reduces inhibitory effect in pre-frontal cortex so aggressive impulses are harder to control
            • Raine et al (2008)
          • Mann et al (1990) manipulated serotonin levels with injections to healthy males. Low levels increased aggression
        • Genetic Influences
          • Twin studies show that MZ twins are more similarily aggressive than DZ
          • McGuffin & Gotesman (1985)
        • Biochemical Influences
          • Testosterone
            • High testosterone causes aggression
            • Archer (1991)
            • Meta-analysis involving 5 studies, 230 males.
          • Cortisol
            • Lower Cortisol acts as a mediator for high testosterone causing aggression
            • van Goozen et al (2007)
          • Alcohol
            • Unleashes aggression. 4/10 prisoners were drunk when they committed a violent crime
            • Carlberg & James (2005)
      • Behavioural theories
        • Bandura (1986)
        • Children learn aggression from observing others
        • They are vicariously rewarded for it when they see others being rewarded
        • He proposed 3 aggressive role models: media, family and culture
        • Mass media enables learning of violence
        • Criticisms of Bandura are demand characteristics and low external validity
      • Cognitive Theories
        • Frustration-aggression Theory
          • Frustration: Anthing that blocks attainment of a goal. It grows as motivation to achieve a goal grows
          • The Mmore frustrated you are , the more likely to be aggressive
          • Dollard (1939)
          • Displacement then occurs, aggression is re-targeted, possibly to something with similar tendencies
          • Was revised, frustration produces anger and it is released only when cues are present (weapon etc)
            • Berkowitz (1989)
        • Schemas (Scripts)
          • The factors that promote this are perceived realism, identification with characters, developmental age, rehersal
    • Factors Influencing
      • Aversive Incidents
        • Heat
          • Hippocrates wondered if the heat makes humans angrier
          • Students were asked to fill out a questionnaire in either a hot or normal room. They reported feeling more irritable in the former & were therefore more aggressive to a stranger
            • Griffit (1970)
        • Pain
          • When lab rats were shocked electrically when near each other, they just attacked with the shock was reduced instead of being friendly
          • Uni students had their hands in either cold or lukewarm water. Those with hands in cold water were more irritable, readily blasted strangers with noise
          • Berkowitz (1998)
          • Arzin (1967)
        • Attacks
          • Being attacked or insulted leads to anger
          • Ppts competed against a programme they thought was human in a reaction time contest. The winner had to shock other, ppts retaliated with equally strong shocks
          • Onbuchi + Kambara (1985)
      • Arousal
        • 2 groups of men were injected with adrenaline. One warned about side effects, the other not
        • The ones warned were irritated by standing next to a rude persson and amused by a cheerful one. 2nd group ignored side effects of drug
        • Therefore, a state of bodily arousal feeds one emotion or another depending on the situation
        • Schacter + Singer (1962)
    • Situational Cues
      • Weapons
        • The presence of weapons predisposes to violence
        • Ppl with weapons in their house were 2.7 more times likely to be killed, usually by family or close accquaintance
        • Kellerman (1997)
      • Pornography
        • The most popular storyline involves women resisting while a man 'persuades'.
        • Showed University males 2 sexual films (where a man overcomes a woman without her express consent) or 2 non-sexual ones.
          • A week later when surveyed by another experimenter, those who saw the sexual films were more accepting to violence against women
        • Malamuth & Check (1981)
        • Sun et al (2008)
      • Television Violence
        • Desensitisation
          • Video Games
            • The greater the exposure to videogames, the more hostile students were to teachers
            • Gentile et al (2004) USA
          • repeated exposure desensitises you
          • Linz et al (1988)
          • Showed 'Slasher'horror films for 2 weeks. Took measurements of fear from 1 and last day
          • The ppts perceived them to be less violent and degrading to women, anxiety & depression about it decreased in the end
        • There is an abundance of violence on telly
        • Viewing violence at age 8 was a predictor of a serious criminal offence at 30.
        • Bhutan: Last nation to get telly in 1999. It resulted in an increased crime rate and everyone feeling jealous + stressed
        • Eron + Heusmann (1984)
      • Video Games
        • The greater the exposure to videogames, the more hostile students were to teachers
        • Gentile et al (2004) USA

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Social Relations resources »