• Evolutionary function - increased likelihood of offspring, access to resources and mates.
  • Nature or nurture - hormones (testosterone, serotonin), brain regions (prefrontal cortex)                                - environment (peers, games), learning theory (reward aggression) 
  • Gender differences in aggression - males more physically, females more indirectly
  • Prefrontal cortex and serotonin - impulse control - underpinned by serotonergic neurons
  • Monkeys with lowest serotonin turnover are more aggressive
  • Low 5-HT (precursor to serontonin) in humans = higher agression and suicide
  • Induced tryptophan  depletion = higher aggression
  • Social learning theory - rewarded or punished behaviour 
  • Bobo doll - agression replication and immitation
  • Twin studies Suggesting that environmental similarities are more important in early life but that genetic factors ultimately over- rule?
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