African American Civil Right's 1950s and 60s

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  • African American Civil Right's 1950s and 60s
    • Racism
      • Despite progress made by Blacks work in WWII, still racism in USA, especially in south
      • AA's had right to vote, but not respect from many Americans
      • Many Southern states still enforced 'Jim Crow laws, which segregated everyday facilities such as buses, public toilets, etc
      • Some Americans couldn't vote because of violence from whites
    • Key Organisations
      • NAACP
        • Didn't gain much support till 50s
        • Aided by civil rights becoming a big issue in American politics
      • CORE
    • Federal Involvement
      • Brown Vs Topeka Board of Education 1954
        • Oliver Brown took the city of Kansas to the SC for forcing his daughter to attend a black only shcool a mile away instead of being able to go to the whites only school 7 blocks away
        • 1950: SC declared children in schools shouldn't be segregated and both race's schools had to be of equal standard
        • NAACP supported the case
          • Thurgood Marshall was the lawyer on the case
        • Brown won the case
          • 1955: SC ordered all states with segregated schools to integrate black and white students
      • Little Rock 9
        • 1957 September: 9 students tried to enrol at Little Rock High School Arkansas
        • They were stopped by the state governor who surrounded the school with the state national guard
        • President Eisenhower sent federal troops to escort and protect the students
      • Montgomery Bus Boycott
        • Rosa Parks, member of the NAACP refused to give up her seat on the bus, and was arrested
        • MLK oprganised a boycott of the buses which lasted for a year
        • 1956 SC said that segregation was illegal on public transport
      • 1961 Freedom Rides
        • Blacks and whites sat together on buses into states where this was illegal
        • Members of CORE
        • Arrested but gained support
        • Wanted to put pressure on Kennedy- succeeded
      • 1962: National Guard and federal troops sent to make sure James Meredith, a black student, was allowed to take his place at Mississippi university
        • 23,000 troops were needed to keep order when rioting followed
    • Key People
      • Martin Luther King
        • Believed in non-violent civil disobedience
        • Organised marches to protest against segregation in the USA
        • Particularly campaigned for AA's right to vote
        • May 1963: March in Birmingham Alabama
          • 170,000 blacks and 80,000 whites marched
          • Eugene "Bull" Connor was police chief during march
      • JFK
        • Appointed blacks to important positions in government
        • His brother, Attornery General, prosecuted people who tried to prevent AA's from voting
        • Desegregated railway and bus stations
        • Intervened in helping first ever black student into Mississippi university
        • Forced Alabama to allow de-segregated schools after MLK's march there
        • Introduced introduced a Civil Rights Bill to congress- but wasn't passed
      • Lyndon Johnson
        • From Texas where segregation was common
          • Surprised people that he forced congress to accept the Civil Rights Act
        • Introduced the Civil Rights Act
          • Made segregation in education adn housingillegal
          • Stated all Americans were entitled to equal employm ent opportunities
          • Stated all Federal projects must include racial integration
        • Voting Rights Act 1965
          • Made it illegal to try and prevent AA's from registering to vote, by removing literacy tests for voters




Thank You! Brillant mindmap created. This revison will serve you good in exams. Good Luck. 



Thank you! This is truly beautiful!



This is an excellent mindmap that gives you a concise overview of developments in Civil Rights in the 1950s and 60s. It contains key statistics, dates and information organised by president, as well as the key legislative developments. Highly recommended.

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