Addiction PSYA4

Incompletely. With no AO2/AO3 YET.

  • Created by: Smyrna
  • Created on: 02-02-14 16:35
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  • Addiction
    • Stages of addiction
      • 1. Initiation
      • 2. Maintenance
      • 3. Replase
    • Biological Explanation
      • 1. Dopamine reward Systems
        • - Dopamine is usually activated when you're happy/pleasured.
        • Nearly all drugs overstimulate the brain by flooding it with dopamine, creating a pleasurable feeling
        • Normal dopamine activity; small amounts released into the brain
        • [Altman et al] Alch and nicotine increase levels of dopamine
        • The Dopamine system is linked to the motivational processes in the mesolimbic system
          • People with addiction might have a sensitive mesolimbic system
      • 2. Opiod System
        • Naltrexone is used to block opiod receptors
        • Too much dopamine could be balanced out with other neurochemicals
        • Balancing two competing neurochemical systems; which some people can do. E.g, people that overeat but don't become addicted
        • Olds and Milner [1954] found that rats would press a leaver of a mild electric shock for stimulation. They would continue to press leaver in preference to other rewards such as food, an inmate etc.
      • Genetics and drugs
        • Noble [1991] people who suffered from an alcohol addiction had a particular D2 dopamine receptor gene. People who have this gene have low lvels of dopamine and drink/take drugs in order for the dopamine to flow
      • Family and addiction
        • Sarafino [1990] alcohol addiction is 4x more likely in children with alcoholic parents, even when adopted
        • Aqraqal and Lynskey [2008] there is a moderate to high genetic influence in addiction to concordance rates [extent to which twins are similar]
      • Enviromental factors
        • Genetics may predispose an individual. But the environment does trigger the addiction
        • Fowler [2007] 1214 pairs of twins. Found that environment was more important for the initiation of addiction, but genetics played a greater role in the progression of a heavier addiction


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