6. Group performance

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  • Group performance
    • Groups are those social aggregates that involve mutual awareness and the potential for interaction
    • STEINER'S MODEL
      • Actual Productivity= Actual Productivity - losses due to Faulty Processes
      • Actual Productivity is the team performance at a given time during a game or event and refers to the extent of successful interaction
      • Potential Productivity is the maximum capability of the group when cohesiveness is at its strongest
      • Faulty Processes mean the factors which can go wrong in team performance. They will impede or even prevent group cohesion
      • There are 2 Faulty Processes that bring about losses:
        • Co-ordination losses (the Ringlemann effect)
          • This is any breakdown in teamwork and is termed the Ringlemann effect
          • These losses occur because the effectiveness of the group as a unit cannot be sustained
          • Ringlemann stated that problems in team co-ordination are more likely to occur as the team numbers increase
        • Motivation losses (social loafing)
          • Relate to an individual who suffers a decrease in motivation during performance causing the player to withdraw effort and 'coast' through play
          • This is called social loafing
          • Social loafing would prevent team co-ordination and inhibit team cohesion
          • Negative influences that can cause social loafing and lead to dysfunctional behaviour include:
            • The feeling that others in the team are not trying
            • If i player feels they are under-valued
            • Protection of self-esteem
            • Response to negative attributions or a negative experience like failure
            • Response to a loss of motivation if the task seems too difficult
        • The elimination of Faulty Processes can encourage an individual to adopt a active healthy lifestyle
    • Other factors that affect teamwork include:
      • Injury can disrupt team strategies and break down co-ordination
      • A lack of incentive to produce teamwork will prevent cohesion
      • Vague individual roles inhibit effective teamwork
      • Low sum of the players' overall ability makes team play difficult to achieve
      • Personality can influence team cohesion as people with low trait confidence find it difficult to promote group cohesion
      • Inadequate leadership inhibits teamwork
    • Factors affecting the formation and development of a cohesive group or team
      • Task cohesion and social cohesion
        • There are 2 types of cohesion: task cohesion and social cohesion
        • The nature of the game determines which type of cohesion it is best to form and develop
        • Task cohesion is most important in interactive sports and activities. It relates to the way team members work with each other to complete a task successfully
        • Social cohesion is most important in co-active sports or activities. It involves the formation of personal relationships within the group that provide the individual with support and friendship
        • Within large groups there is a possibility that sub-groups will emerge
        • Sub-groups impede the formation of a cohesive group so the coach must find ways to unify the team
      • CARRON: 4 factors affecting team cohesion
        • 1. Situational factors which include elements of the situation and environment (interactive or co-active involvement, the leadership style, the size of the groups)
        • 2. Individual factors refer to the characteristics of the team members (motivation levels, experience)
        • 3. Leadership factors involve the style of leadership preferred by the group
        • 4. Team factors include collective team goals, good communication and a record of shared success
      • Factors affecting participation in a group or team
        • Allocation of clear roles can help an individual feel valued and ensure the development of mutual understanding between individuals
        • Participation in team building exercises is good for both task and social cohesion
        • An evaluation of each member's performance effectively reduces social loafing
        • The punishment of non-team or non-cohesive players will highlight the importance of group cohesion
        • The selection of team players rather than players who are only interested in their own performance promotes cohesion
        • Development of team goals helps to clarify how team standards encourage effectiveness
        • Rehearsal of set plays during practice facilitates group co-ordination
        • The reinforcement of team success effectively gives team efficiency as the attribution for the achievement of the group
        • Strong leadership will actively encourage group cphesion
      • Group and team effects on behaviour
        • It has been found that increased levels of group cohesion help an individual to commit to  an exercise programmes
        • The group can provide social support and endorse the value of the individuals contribution
        • If the consensus of a peer group favours participation in a healthy active lifestyle, the individual is likely to follow the trend
        • TAJFEL
          • The norms and values of the group will be looked on positively by the indivudal if they are part of that group
          • If the individual is not part of the group, they will look negatively on the group ethos in order to protect self-esteem. Once having become a member they will too protect the interests of the group
        • JANIS
          • Proposed a phenomenon called 'groupthink'
          • 'Groupthink' stated that by becoming overly strong, group cohesion can stifle individuality and participation
          • It can be said that overall, group membership has a positive influence on the adoption of a healthy, balanced lifetsyle

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