Was the period from 1970- 1992 a turning point for Native Americans

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  • 1970 - 1992: Rise of the New Right
    • 1970 Nixon
      • President Nizon's speech in 1970 strongly criticised Congress' treatment of NA's since the 19th century. He took on the ideas from Johnson's 'forgotton Americans' soeech of 1968. He described he degradation and humiliation of these peoples.
    • Louis R Bruce Jnr.
      • 1969 - Nixon appointed Louis R Brice Jnr as CIA. In 1970, he pledged to return Indian Lands with laws authorising the return of land to the pueblo Indians. Many Indians who lost their status due to determination regained their rights and gave them access to the federal courts. Inn 1972, NA's were given prefence in emoloyment in the BIA which meant greater Indian involvement in admninistration of federal funding.
    • Employment in BIA
    • 1972 Indian education act
      • This increased federal funding for schools and built reservation schools. He closed many boarding schools alonsides his successors, Ford and Carter
    • 1975 - Indian self-determination act
      • During Fords presidency showed the radical change of policy towards NA's. The government finally abandoned its want for assimilation. The latter gave tribes the ability to negotiate with the BIA and authorised federal funding for education and health services which moved the tribes to self-sufficiency. The latter gave NA parents more involvement in education of their children,
    • 1978 - Indian Religious Freedom Act
      • This enabled Native Americans to express and exceruse their traditional rights. This was a precursor to the 1990 Native American Graves protection act which elevated American Indian remains as sacred and valued.
    • Some economic prosperity (casinos) but continuing poverty, alcholism and suicide on reservations
      • Regan believed in 'Native capitalism' for self-sufficiency that is the establishment of private enterprises like casionos and restraurants onto reservations for self sufficiency, though this damaged NA's and their way of life
    • Impact of Red Power in 1970s
      • Red power was also growing increasingly violent and millitant orchestrated by AIM in the 70s. In 1971 there was the occupation of mount rushmore. In 1972 there was the occupation of BIA with more than 1000 NA occupying it. In 1973 the occupation of wounded kneww recieved mass media coverage and ended with a negotated settlement lasting 71 days.
      • in 1975 there was the prine ridge reservation shooting in which the SC blamed the federal authorities for misconduct
    • 1972 - AIM took over Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington DC


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