First 409 words of the document:
To what extent were the 1970s and 1980s the most significant period in the quest for Native American rights between 1865 and
1970s & 1980s:
Siege of Alcatraz 1969 got media coverage so increased awareness of rights. It also helped inspire NAs to gain control over their own
situation with more unity and solidarity. The militant action possibly accelerated the movement towards better civil rights.
Red Power in 1971 occupied Mount Rushmore and other places which increased media attention so public became conscious of issues.
AIM took over the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
NARF- founded to defend the rights of Native Americans and to preserve tribal culture. It trained younger NAs to become attorneys to
pursue their NA legal issues. This organisation fought through the Supreme; 1980 US v. Sioux Nation, 1976 Fisher v. Montana and 1974
Oneida v. Oneida Madison Countries, NY. The outcome of several cases proves that American was starting to recognise the need for
change. Land was won back.
Nixon did more than any other President and marked a turning point in the period. He ended policy of termination and recognised that
NAs had been mistreated; encouraged Ford to implement Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act. In 1972 he
introduced the Indian Education Act- increased federal funding for schools. His government no longer focused on assimilation!!
Other Significant Periods:
Indian Reorganisation Act (New Deal 1934) - this reversed the Dawes Act, restored tribal ownership of some land and tribes were
encouraged to create their own constitution. Independence was given.
Meriam Report in 1928 was governmental research into NA living conditions. It showed that tribes were the most impoverished group
in US. Hoover supported its recommendations and improved medical facilities.
John Collier had a big impact on the rights as he was the first leader to communicate with American Indians and tried to push for their
Two World Wars- Many fought and gained recognition for their bravery although most had to return to reservations after. These wars
changed NAs perspective as they were introduced to urban life- assimilation was positive for some.
Other organisations influenced the campaign and built up morale.
Conclusion: Yes, these years were very important for the campaign for rights whilst other periods contributed to the opinion of how change
was needed, Americanisation was too powerful for any significant amendment to make NAs content.
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Assess the view that the Supreme Court was more effective than Congress in supporting the rights of the Native Americans from
1865 to 1992
In favour of S.C.:
Harrison v. Laveen (1948) - Vote was given as it was ruled that Arizona had violated their rights to register their vote (they complied
with all qualifications). Enforced voting rights of 1924 act but there were still restrictions in other states.
1974 Oneida v.…read more