1960's Popular Music

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  • 1960's and Counterculture
    • Counter culture
      • a rejection of the 1950's society
        • sexual liberation
        • women's rights
        • racial equality
        • anti-materialism
        • commercialism
      • (I Can't Get No) Satisfaction
        • 1965
        • recorded in America
        • frustration with commercialism
          • commercialism is maximising profit
          • frustration with music industry
          • frustration with celebrity industry
        • The B side in America was different to the B side in England
          • Both B sides were based on the 12 bar blues in contrast to the rock and roll sound of the A sides
        • sexual frustration
          • lyrics seen as overtly sexual and shocking for the time
            • American entertainment show "Shindig" cutting two lines of the song
          • frustration with commercialism
            • commercialism is maximising profit
            • frustration with music industry
            • frustration with celebrity industry
        • colloquial
          • double negative "can't get no"
          • younger audiences understand better
            • perhaps why there was a fuss with the producers of "Shindig"
              • American entertainment show "Shindig" cutting two lines of the song
        • Structure
          • intro--chorus--v1--pre-chorus--chorus--v2--pre-chorus--chorus--v3--pre-chorus--chorus
        • Timbre
          • The released version was the second version to be recorded
          • semi shouted lyrics by Jagger
          • rhythm instruments are more subdued than lead vocals/guitar
            • Guitar riff and lyrics emphasise the frustration of song
        • Music Technology
          • Fuzzbox to distort guitar sound and produce a saxophone like timre
            • Timbre
              • The released version was the second version to be recorded
              • semi shouted lyrics by Jagger
              • rhythm instruments are more subdued than lead vocals/guitar
                • Guitar riff and lyrics emphasise the frustration of song
        • Melody
          • guitar riff was composed by Keith Richards before the song was
            • "Riffmaster"
          • the riff is syncopated
            • contrasts with four beat drum pattern
            • includes a d natural which is the flattened 7th in e major
              • heard in verses and last line of the chorus as well as pre-chorus
              • also heard in melody line of the vocals
          • opening vocal phrase based no ascending diminished arpeggio
            • G#-B-D natural
              • followed by C#-E-G natural
                • Edgy frustrated tone through diminished fifth in opening
                  • G#-B-D natural
                    • followed by C#-E-G natural
                      • Edgy frustrated tone through diminished fifth in opening
                        • adds to shock to listeners
                  • adds to shock to listeners
          • "Cause I try, and I try, and I try, and I try"
            • almost entirely ascending
              • increases sense of frustration and desperation
                • short, melodic phrases
            • short, melodic phrases
        • E major
        • Harmony
          • Very simple
            • Chord I
              • E major
            • Chord IV
              • A major
            • Chord V
              • B major
              • Only used in line "and I try, and I try, and I try"
              • Sparingly used
                • Adds to sense of urgency
            • Flattened chord VII
              • D major
              • Adds harmonic colour to vocals and riff
          • No perfect cadences
            • Adds to frustration represented
              • No resolution
          • No melodic sense of conclusionor resolution
        • Texture
          • NOT a melody and accompaniment
          • Riff forms an introduction
            • important
          • Riff competes with vocals
    • The  Beatles
      • I Want To Hold Your Hand
        • 1963
        • Structure
          • intro-v1-chorus-v2-chorus-||:bridge-v3-chorus:||coda
        • Timbre
          • squeezing of the dynamic range to unify the loudness of notes or chords
          • adds to the tone of sustain
          • makes an instrument sound like a different instrument
          • over dubbed
            • possible through the use of a four-track multi-track recorder
            • hand claps
            • John Lennon's falsetto vocals
        • Melody
          • Uses melisma and octave leaps to emphasise the word hand
            • Melisma - a vocal technique in which the singer sings several notes to a syllable
            • Second verse e.g. I (B3) want (B3) to (B3) hold (B3) your (B3) hand (B4)
              • Contrasts
            • At the end of each chorus "I want to hold your hand/I want to hold your hand' descends from C5 to C4
              • Contrasts
              • First line seems less certain, more tentative whereas the second line sounds more purposeful and definite
        • Harmony
          • Major and minor mediant chords
            • B minor and major chords
              • the contrast between the two chords ads colour to the unusual harmony and gives different endings to the two lines of the verse
          • a chord progression that was used in other songs of that era
            • I-VI-IV-V-I
          • G major key
            • not  used to form a cadence
              • B minor and major chords
                • the contrast between the two chords ads colour to the unusual harmony and gives different endings to the two lines of the verse
          • the b major chord is bright and sounds more hopeful and positive and leads more naturally into the chorus
        • Texture
          • in thirds between Paul McCartney and John Lennon at the word 'hand'
          • verse is sung in unison
      • Music Technology
        • first Beatles song to be recorded using a four-track multi-track recorder
          • others had been on two-track
          • vocals were separated from basic instruments
    • Social commentary
      • questions  the norms of social norms, authority and policy
      • the idea of implementing or promoting change using rhetorical means e.g. "war, what is it good for?"
      • aimed at teenagers
      • societies could be changed through the music/art produced and received by the public
    • The Rolling Stones
      • (I Can't Get No) Satisfaction
        • 1965
        • recorded in America
        • The B side in America was different to the B side in England
          • Both B sides were based on the 12 bar blues in contrast to the rock and roll sound of the A sides
        • sexual frustration
          • lyrics seen as overtly sexual and shocking for the time
          • colloquial
            • double negative "can't get no"
            • younger audiences understand better
              • perhaps why there was a fuss with the producers of "Shindig"
            • Structure
              • intro--chorus--v1--pre-chorus--chorus--v2--pre-chorus--chorus--v3--pre-chorus--chorus
            • Music Technology
              • Fuzzbox to distort guitar sound and produce a saxophone like timre
              • Melody
                • guitar riff was composed by Keith Richards before the song was
                  • "Riffmaster"
                • the riff is syncopated
                  • contrasts with four beat drum pattern
                  • includes a d natural which is the flattened 7th in e major
                    • heard in verses and last line of the chorus as well as pre-chorus
                    • also heard in melody line of the vocals
                • opening vocal phrase based no ascending diminished arpeggio
                  • "Cause I try, and I try, and I try, and I try"
                    • almost entirely ascending
                      • increases sense of frustration and desperation
                  • E major
                  • Harmony
                    • Very simple
                      • Chord I
                        • E major
                      • Chord IV
                        • A major
                      • Chord V
                        • B major
                        • Only used in line "and I try, and I try, and I try"
                        • Sparingly used
                          • Adds to sense of urgency
                      • Flattened chord VII
                        • D major
                        • Adds harmonic colour to vocals and riff
                    • No perfect cadences
                      • Adds to frustration represented
                        • No resolution
                    • No melodic sense of conclusionor resolution
                  • Texture
                    • NOT a melody and accompaniment
                    • Riff forms an introduction
                      • important
                    • Riff competes with vocals
            • Social commentary
              • questions  the norms of social norms, authority and policy
              • the idea of implementing or promoting change using rhetorical means e.g. "war, what is it good for?"
              • aimed at teenagers
              • societies could be changed through the music/art produced and received by the public

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