Water on the land

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  • Created by: Sam Evans
  • Created on: 06-12-14 12:23
What does a river's long profile show?
The profile that shows the upper, middle and lower courses of the river
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Describe the cross profile of a river's lower course.
The cross profile of a river's lower course has a gentle gradient, a very wide, almost flat valley and a very wide, deep channel
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Name the rivers course where vertical erosion is dominant
The upper course of the river
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What's the difference between abrasion and attrition?
Abrasion is where eroded rocks picked up by the river scrape and rub against the channel wearing it away and attrition is where the rocks bash into each other and break into smaller pieces
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Name two processes of transportation.
Traction and saltation
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When does deposition occur?
Deposition occurs when the river loses velocity. It does this because the volume of water falls, the amount of eroded material increases, the water is shallower or the river reaches its mouth
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Where is the current fastest on a meander?
On the outside bend
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Name the landform created when a meander is cut of by deposition
Ox-bow lakes
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Where do waterfalls form
They form where a river flows over an area of hard rock followed by an area of softer rock
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How is a gorge formed?
Gorges are formed when waterfalls erode a large steep sided valley overtime
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What is a flood plain?
A flood plain is a wide valley floor on either side of a river
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Describe how levees are formed
Levees are formed by eroded material that is deposited over the whole flood plain. The deposited material builds up creating levees.
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What do the contour lines on a map show?
The height of the land in metres
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Give two pieces of map evidence for a waterfall
Waterfalls are marked on maps, but the symbol for a cliff (black, blocky lines) and the close contour lines are evidence for a waterfall
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Give two pieces of map evidence for a river's lower course
The nearby land is low, another piece of evidence would be the river joining a sea or lake
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What is river discharge?
The volume of water that flows through a certain point in a river per second
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How does impermeable rock affect river discharge?
Water cannot infiltrate the ground so runoff is increased and the water gets to the river quicker increasing the river dicharge
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Describe two physical factors that can cause floods
Heavy rainfall and relief
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Describe one human factor that can cause floods
Deforestation
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Name a flood that happened in a rich part of the world
Carlisle, England - River Eden
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Describe the primary effects of the flood
3 deaths, 3000 people made homeless, 4 schools were severely flooded, 350 businesses were shut down, 70 000 addresses lost power, roads and bridges were damaged and rivers were polluted with rubbish and sewage
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Describe the long-term responses to the flood.
Community groups were set up - emotional support and practical help to affected people. Flood defence scheme set up to improve flood defences - e.g. build up banks to prevent flooding
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Give an example of a flood in a poor part of the world
Bangladesh - River Brahmaputra and Ganges
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Define hard engineering
Man - made structures built to control the flow of rivers and reduce flooding
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Define soft engineering
Schemes set up using knowledge of a river nd its processes to reduce the effects of flooding
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Describe how channel straightening reduces the risk of a flood.
Water moves out of the area more quickly because it doesn't travel as far
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Describe the disadvantages of flood warnings
Flood warnings don't stop a flood, it can make it hard to get insurance and people may not hear or have access to warnings
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Which areas of the UK have a water deficit?
Birmingham
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Give one potential problem of water transfer
Aqua ducts used to be built however it can be really costly
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Name a reservoir in the UK
Rutland Water
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Describe two social impacts that the reservoir has had
It created recreational activities and created many jobs to build and maintain the reservoir
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Describe two environmental impacts that the reservoir had
Ospreys were reintroduced at the reservoir and a variety of habitats were found around the reservoir
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What is meant by a sustainable water supply
People should be able to ge that water that they want today without affecting the people in the future from having enough water
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How can water be taken from a reservoir in a sustainable way?
People can only take out as much water as is replaced by the rivers that supply it
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the cross profile of a river's lower course.

Back

The cross profile of a river's lower course has a gentle gradient, a very wide, almost flat valley and a very wide, deep channel

Card 3

Front

Name the rivers course where vertical erosion is dominant

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What's the difference between abrasion and attrition?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name two processes of transportation.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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