ussr ; fall ; economic weakness ; gorby's initial eco reforms

gorby initial steps cautious nd began with positioning what?
like-minded reformers into key positions
1 of 167
what happened to one of main politburo rivals romanov?
dismissed in july '85
2 of 167
yeltsin and yakovlev were promoted to central committee in what year?
3 of 167
at that pt what was gorby now ready to do?
launch economic reforms
4 of 167
his initial approach echoed that of his mentor?
5 of 167
campaign to attack problem of?
rampant alcoholism
6 of 167
this would improve which two things?
health of pop / productivity of workforce
7 of 167
byt mid-'80s alcohol acct for what % household spending?
8 of 167
partly explained by lack of what?
other goods in shops
9 of 167
but whatever cause detrimental for workforce many of whom regularly turned up?
10 of 167
as gorby put it in his april '85 st8ment?
'we can't build communism on vodka'
11 of 167
gov introduced measures to curb drinking like legal age raised to what?
12 of 167
what happened to no retail outlets alcohol could b bought at?
13 of 167
what happened to vineyards?
14 of 167
and distilleries?
15 of 167
what happened to cost shop vodka?
16 of 167
some benefits at first but what happened to tax revenues?
17 of 167
and caused what?
serious shortfall of budget
18 of 167
what happened to drinking levels after a while?
19 of 167
moonshine produced in large qs
20 of 167
soon became more clear what wouldn't solve underlying workforce problems?
relying on them to become more sober
21 of 167
- 12th 5yp
22 of 167
key issue remained of how to improve level of what in economy?
23 of 167
gov fell back on traditional soviet method of?
increasing investment
24 of 167
controlled by?
central planning
25 of 167
to push economy to?
greater production
26 of 167
hoped this would accelerate what?
growth in economy
27 of 167
focus of investment would be which 3 things?
science / research / engineering
28 of 167
approach to be implemented in?
12th 5yp
29 of 167
of years?
30 of 167
- key weaknesses
31 of 167
ussr investment was heavily skewed towards what?
construction projects
32 of 167
but these had habit fo leading to what for factories to be equipped?
extra spending
33 of 167
therefore these projects tended to lead to what?
34 of 167
and did what more than originally intended?
sucks in more investment
35 of 167
soviet industry became notorious for using what kind of equipment?
out of deat / breakdown prone
36 of 167
old factories relied on old equipment and became incresaingly?
37 of 167
soviet industry slow to use new tech and imports of foregin tech were drain on?
valuable foreign exchange
38 of 167
which was often needed to?
import food
39 of 167
what was swallowing vast sums investment that weren;t leading to productivity improvements?
agricultural sector
40 of 167
gov reached point where they realised what about diverting additional agriculture sums?
little to gain in production growth terms
41 of 167
focus still remained in what over what?
quantity over wuality
42 of 167
traditional soviet emphasis on meeting mumerical targets often meant what?
quality poor
43 of 167
sometimes so poor products were?
44 of 167
thus gorbys acceleration policy did little to address what?
fundamental weakness of soviet economy
45 of 167
part of problem was level of what?
46 of 167
and much of this came from where?
party and state eco planning apparatus
47 of 167
under 12th 5yp gorby tried to streamline state apparatus in attempt to do whaT?
avoid waste through duplication and cut rivalry by competing interests for available resources
48 of 167
rather rhan decentralise eco decision-making what did he set up?
49 of 167
to achieve?
better co-ordination of economic activity and reduce waste
50 of 167
were superministries able to bring about these changes?
51 of 167
what was chief obstacle of reforms?
being implemented by ppl whose privileged positions reforms were trying to reduce
52 of 167
changes to what also came up against military resistance?
investment priorities
53 of 167
who were powerful in pushing for investment in?
military tech
54 of 167
industria and military investment could only be increased if?
other sectors suffered (this is like glee with the cheerios and the glee club all over again)
55 of 167
and this posed threat to gov ability to do what for public?
maintain goods for them to consume
56 of 167
alternative was which unsustainable short-term remedy?
go into deficit
57 of 167
in '85 deficit of soviet economy was what % gdp?
58 of 167
and in '86?
59 of 167
what about gorby exacerbated the situation?
inability to grapple with underlying probs
60 of 167
problems weren't helped with ongoing war where?
61 of 167
wihch increased spending on what?
62 of 167
in lght of usa's plans to develop what?
star wars programme
63 of 167
which was their programme for dev of what in space?
64 of 167
it was clear real change would require what?
much more fundamental reform
65 of 167
66 of 167
bywhat year did gorby announce more fundamental restructuring was needed?
67 of 167
if state apparatus was obstacle to reform it was better to do what?
use methods outside of state
68 of 167
when did he announce perestroika?
january '87
69 of 167
at what event?
plenum of the central comittee
70 of 167
he hoped economy could be revitalised by allowing element of?
private trade
71 of 167
and inroducing?
market mechanisms
72 of 167
what was market mechanism?
using practices of capitalist economy to determine prices > state
73 of 167
this would put in place series of what that would encourage production?
74 of 167
and give greater what than command economy?
75 of 167
in doing what?
meeting population needs
76 of 167
--- key perestroika reforms
77 of 167
- encouragement of joint ventures
78 of 167
january '87
79 of 167
gov allowed who to est business in ussr?
foreign firms
80 of 167
usually in joint enterprises with?
81 of 167
moscow got first mcdonalds in what year?
82 of 167
gorby hoped joint ventures with foreign businesses wouldopen ussr to what?
more modern tech
83 of 167
- law on state enterprises
84 of 167
june '87
85 of 167
allowed loosening of state controls over which two things?
wages and prices
86 of 167
and as consequence weakened who's authority?
87 of 167
also allowed element of election in choice of?
88 of 167
factories given right to do what once state targets had been met?
produce what they liked
89 of 167
- co-ops legalised
90 of 167
91 of 167
allowed small-scale waht to be established?
private enterprises
92 of 167
these businesses could do what?
set own prices
93 of 167
result was flourishing sector of wht developing?
cafes / restaurants / smallshops
94 of 167
use of term 'co-operatives' appealed to who in party?
95 of 167
who feared what?
dismantling of socialis
96 of 167
girby thus able partly disguise what?
move toward more market-based economy
97 of 167
98 of 167
what showed small increase in growth rate?
food production
99 of 167
what % in '86?
100 of 167
and in '87?
101 of 167
but still inadequate to?
feed growing population
102 of 167
what % ussr foodstuffs imported?
103 of 167
enterprises still subject to what?
state interference
104 of 167
state decided on wht?
allocation of materials
105 of 167
principle of devolving some power to mangers often depended on what?
attitude of state bureaucrats
106 of 167
many of whom preferred to keep tight control to ensure what?
targets met
107 of 167
products especially which inparticualr diverted from state shops?
108 of 167
to where?
109 of 167
which was cheaper
state shops
110 of 167
so what did this produce/
111 of 167
and did waht for state shops?
strpped of many supplies
112 of 167
particularly bad impact on who?
113 of 167
and other groups who lived on?
fixed income
114 of 167
co-ops able to shop around for buyer that would do wht?
offer them good price for goods
115 of 167
resulted in deals being concluded with who?
richer city authorities
116 of 167
leaving poorer cities deviod of?
adequate food + other basic products
117 of 167
co-ops proved to be more productive than state sector and what didn't go unnoticed?
potential for profits
118 of 167
result was that they attracted attention of who?
corrupt gov officials
119 of 167
who demanded bribes for what?
permission to operate
120 of 167
criminal gangs also saw potential to exact money through?
extortion rackets
121 of 167
these gangs became powerful (much like al capone) through which policy of gorbys?
no alcohol
122 of 167
they seized opportunity to make it illegally
123 of 167
they now had chance to do what?
add to wealth
124 of 167
uncertainty over supplies encouraged wave of wha?
125 of 167
what haooened to shops asagoods arrived?
quickly emptied
126 of 167
what was introduced in some cities to ease situation?
127 of 167
in '88 how many regions were there in russia?
128 of 167
how many of those rationed meat?
129 of 167
implementation of principle of electing managers resulted in what?
steep wage rise
130 of 167
urban wages rose by what % in '88?
131 of 167
and in '89?
132 of 167
foreign companies keen to invest were faced with what that made process slow?
endless bureaucracy
133 of 167
sometimes did what for potential investors?
put off completely
134 of 167
by end '90 nearly how many foreign ventures in ussr?
135 of 167
but most were v what that made them do little for economy?
small scale
136 of 167
reforms often undermined by whi>
137 of 167
in cities what happened to reforms?
ignored / sabotaged
138 of 167
in leningrad what did city admin do with all sausages?
withdrew from shops and warehouses and buried them
139 of 167
situation made worse by fall in price of
140 of 167
significant impact as ussr had become more reliant on using oil exports as source of wha?
foreign exchange
141 of 167
by '84 oil and gas accounted for what % soviet exports?
142 of 167
reform weakened apparatus of st8 planning but also what?
provided little to replace
143 of 167
by end '89 soviet economy increasingly in debt and approaching?
crisis pt
144 of 167
had gorby's promise of improved consumer goods been achieved?
nah not even
145 of 167
what had his reforms done?
made worse
146 of 167
what had increased?
147 of 167
and workers where protested over unpaid wages / food shortages?
don basin
148 of 167
gov response was to introduce which short-term measure?
quickly increase wages
149 of 167
also why little pt in having more money?
nothing in shop 2 buy
150 of 167
gorby's inability to bring about improved eco sitch did what for political power / position?
151 of 167
also led to way to seemed only solution?
dismantling soviet economy system
152 of 167
153 of 167
when did they issue their report?
july '89
154 of 167
stating what was needed?
more radical solution
155 of 167
called for move to what economy?
156 of 167
report did what to politburo?
157 of 167
what did reformers want to do?
implement quickly
158 of 167
while others?
more gradual
159 of 167
gorby faced difficult challenge of trying to maintain unity so did what?
hesitated over making decision
160 of 167
by october what had shatalin put down?
500 days programme
161 of 167
which recommended?
rapid move to market economy
162 of 167
who rejected the plan?
soviet goverment
163 of 167
who accepted?
russian parliament
164 of 167
what did this division between central party leadershup and national ussr republics cause?
collapse of economy
165 of 167
soviet output declined by what % '90-'91?
166 of 167
according to critics perestroika had led to what?
catastroika (eco-catastrophe)
167 of 167

Other cards in this set

Card 2


what happened to one of main politburo rivals romanov?


dismissed in july '85

Card 3


yeltsin and yakovlev were promoted to central committee in what year?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


at that pt what was gorby now ready to do?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


his initial approach echoed that of his mentor?


Preview of the front of card 5
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