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How did the Cold War end?

New hard-line approach adopted by Western leaders
This argument supported by triumphalist school of historians and those
on the political right who think that firm action is the only way of
standing up to aggression
Helped in undermining the USSR through his policy…

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o Supported regimes that had very poor records of human rights
e.g in Philippines
Soviet scientists did not see SDI as a realistic policy and in discussions
among policy makers there was not even mention of a race to catch up
with Reagan's new weapons
Economic Internal Issues of Soviets…

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o Increasingly aged and confused Brezhnev died in 1982, only to
be followed by Yuri Andropov who was wired to a dialysis
machine for most of his time as leader and finally Chernenko who
was dying of emphysema when he became leader. All of these
men failed to have an…

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important in laying the foundations for future negotiations in an
atmosphere of cordiality
o Oct 1986: Reykjavik Summit ­ Gorby proposed phasing out
nuclear weapons and offered a series of over-increasing
concessions that took US leadership by surprise
o Dec 1987: Washington Summit ­ INF (intermediate nuclear
forces) agreement signed…

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o Dec 1989 Ceausescu regime in Romania overthrown
o Trend continued throughout E. Europe each one spurring the
next on in an ironic domino theory kind of way.
o By end of 1989 every pro-Soviet communist govt in E Europe had
Finally in 1991 the Soviet Union dissolved as…

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and the inability of a communist system to meet the needs of tis people
would eventually lead to crisis.
Development of popular protest movements was certainly a
consequence of the failure of communist regimes, if not communism as
an ideology
Again this links back to economy as if the state…


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