unit 1 revision

how do infants, adolescents and adults grow?
infants grow rapidly and reach roughly 1/2 their adult height by age 2
adolescents experience growth spurts during puberty
adults reach full height in early adulthood
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what are the 4 principles of growth?
1. growth rates arent constant
2. different body parts grow at different rates
3. growth rates vary between children
4. boys growth rates are usually faster an average than girls
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length or height?
0-2 = length of infant when lying down
2+ = height of individual when standing
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why do you measure head circumference?
at birth and 6-8 weeks old, head circumference is taken to identify abnormalities in skull or brain growth
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what is growth an indicator of?
children's health and well-being
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what do centile lines represent?
values of measurement from a large group of children to show 'norms' of growth in each age group
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what do growth charts show?
length, height, weight and head dimensions expected at certain ages
comparing is important to show signs of ill health and developmental problems
different for boys and girls as expected rate of growth varies
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what is physical, intellectual, emotional and social development?
physical-growth and other physical changes that happen to our bodies through life
intellectual- development of language, memory and thinking skills
emotional-ability to cope with feelings towards ourselves and others
social-ability to form friendships a
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what are development milestones?
rate of development may vary between individuals but follows same sequence called a milestone (developmental norm).
e.g. 0-3m=gurgling&crying to communicate
18m=six to ten words
2y=link words together
3y=simple sentences
8y=reason and explain
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what are gross motor skills?
control of large muscles (torso, arms, legs, hands and feet)
for example: crawling, walking, running, balancing, coordinating, bending, climbing, pulling, pushing, kicking, scooting, jumping and skipping
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how do infants develop gross motor skills?
develop from head down
6m=control neck and back muscles so they can roll, sit and crawl
11-13m=leg muscles develop so they can stand, cruis and walk
2y=climb onto low furniture, propel sit-on toy
2 1/2=kick a ball
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examples of early childhood development of gross motor skills
>3-4 balance and walk along line 5-8 balance on low beam
>3-4 run backwards and forwards 5-8 skip with a rope
>3 pedal and control tricycle 6 ride a bicycle
>3-4 hop on one foot 5-8 hop, skip, jump with confidence
>3 throw ball 4 aim it 5-8 accurately
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what are fine motor skills
controlling and coordinating the movement of small muscles such as fingers and hands
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how do fine motor skills develop?
newborn=grasp adults finger
3m=hold rattle for short time
6m=grasp toy, pass from hand to hand
12m=pick up small objects using pincer grasp
18m= build with small blocks, use spoon, make marks with crayon using palmar grasp
2y=pull on shoes, control c
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what is gripping, manipulation and hand eye coordination?
gripping- having strength to hold object tightly. e.g. hold rattle, handle, spoon
manipulation-skilful movement such as twisting, turning and passing from hand to hand. e.g. building with blocks, musical instrument, playing with farm animals&cars
hand e
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what is puberty?
puberty is the physical change that happens during adolescence. it starts between 11 and 13 for girls and 13-15 for boys. it starts when a hormone in the brain sends a signal to the pituitary gland which releases hormones stimulating ovaries and testes to
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what is the role of hormones in sexual development?
boys=testosterone produced by testes. stimulates penis and testes growth, pubic hair growth, muscle development and lowering of the voice
girls=oestrogen and progesterone produced by ovaries. stimulate breast growth, reproductive system and help regulate
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what are primary sexual characteristics?
processes related to sex organs present at birth and mature when sex hormones are released.
boys - penis enlarges, prostate gland produces secretions, testes enlarge and produce sperm
girls - menstruation begins, ovulation occurs, uterus and vagina grow
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what are secondary sexual characteristics?
not necessary for reproduction. develop when sex hormones are released
boys - facial, armpit, chest and pubic hair growth, increased muscle, laryns grows causing voice to deepen, growth spurt
girls - armpit and pubic hair growth, increased layers of fat
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what does physical maturity mean?
- physical strength and stamina at its peak
- motor coordination is at its peak
- full height reached
- reaction time is quickest
- women most fertile, can become pregnant and lactate
- hand-eye coordination at its peak
- sexual characteristics fully
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what is perimenopause?
around 40-45 women become less fertile as they reach the end of their reproductive years
oestrogen decreases, menstruation is less frequent and ovulation is irregular
symptoms : hot flushes, night sweats, mood swings, loss of libido, vaginal dryness
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what are the signs of ageing?
greying hair
loss of muscle, tone and stamina
body shape may change due to increase or loss of weight
men begin to loose hair
women are no longer fertile as menstruation ends
loss of height
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what is the role of hormones in females?
oestrogen - female sexuality, regulates ovulation
progesterone - necessary for implantation of fertilised eggs in the uterus, maintenance of pregnancy and sexual health
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what is menopause?
natural physiological change experienced by women in. iddle adulthood. happens over several years with gradual ending of menstruation
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what are the symptoms of menopause as a result of hormonal changes?
reduction in oestrogen causes: ovaries to stop producing eggs, thinning and shrinkage of vagina
reduction in oestrogen: affects hypothalamus causing hot flushes and night sweats, affects health of hair, skin and nails, may cause mood swings
reduction in
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what are the effects of ageing?
less elasticity
decline in strength
muscle loss
stamina loss
less mobility in small and large muscles
hearing and vision reduction
thinning of hair on head and pubic areas
decline in organ performance
higher susceptibility to disease and infection
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how does height loss and intellectual ability get affected?
by age of 80 individuals may have lost at much as 5cm. this is caused by compression of spinal discs and joints and changes to posture
ageing can negatively affect how individuals process information e.g. memory, recall, speed of thinking
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what are the different types of intellectual development?
problem solving - work things out, make decisions
language development - organise and express thoughts
memory - storing and recalling information
abstract thought and creative thinking - thinking and discussing things that can't be observed
moral deve
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how do intellectual skills develop differently at different life stages?
infancy and early childhood - rapid intellectual development, 90% of neurone connections in place by 5
early adulthood - gained knowledge, skills and experience, use past experiences to make judgements, logical and realistic thinking, able to think throu
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examples of intellectual milestones from 0-8years
birth - senses to understand world around them
3y - ask questions, count, recognise colours and sort objects
5y - read, write and draw, talk about past and future
8 - think more deeply and reason, talk about abstract ideas and plan
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what are the stages of Piaget's theory and what happens in them?
1. sensorimotor = 0-2 years, learn about environment through senses by developing early schemas to physically explore the world
2. pre-operational = 2-7 years, control environment using symbolic behaviour not yet able to think logically
3. concrete oper
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what are the criticisms of Piaget's stages?
underestimated children's development
with support they can quickly move to next stage of development
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what is Piaget's schematic development theory
assimilation-constructs schema (schema about sand)
equilibrium-experience fits with schema (experience fits with nursery sandpit)
disequilibrium-experience is disturbed (water getting added, sand behaves differently, upsets child)
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what is conservation?
child's understanding that the amount stays the same even when container changes shape.
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what was Piaget's test on conservation?
what did it show?
- 4yr shown 2 identical glasses, same amount of water in, water from one is poured in a tall, narrow beaker, child believes theres more water in tall beaker.
- shows children under 7 cannot conserve because they cant think about more than one aspect of a
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what was Piaget's theory of egocentrism?
piaget believed until children are
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Card 2


what are the 4 principles of growth?


1. growth rates arent constant
2. different body parts grow at different rates
3. growth rates vary between children
4. boys growth rates are usually faster an average than girls

Card 3


length or height?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


why do you measure head circumference?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what is growth an indicator of?


Preview of the front of card 5
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